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Name the special senses and what CN's
- 2. Gustation- taste
- CN 7,9=anterior 2/3
- 10=posterior 1/3; base tongue
- 12=movement of tongue
- facial nerve
- 3. Visual
- So4 Lr6 Al3
- optic nerve=#2
- 4. Hearing and balance
- Choclear Nerve
- CN 8= Vestibulocular
Explain the pathway of olfaction
- From the Nasal cavity, olfactory nerves project thru formina of cribiform plate of ethmoid bone to the olfactory bulbs.
- Then synapse with secondary neurons and mitral cells.
- From bulb, the olfactory tract CN 1 (olfactory nerve) sends to cerebral cortex of frontal lobe
DOES NOT PASS THROUGH THE THALMUS, THE ONLY SENSATION WHICH DOES NOT.
1. The lateral olfactory area is responsible for
2. Medial olfactory area
3. Intermediate area
1. Conscious perception
2. Visceral and emotional response- tied to limbic system
3. Modification/adaptation of incoming information
Name the areas of the tongue which sense the 5 tastes.
Which tastes do not have G proteins
Sour-- Sides of the tongue
- Salty-- tip of tongue
- (Both these NO G proteins)
Bitter-- Base of tongue
Sweet-- tip of tongue
Which one does not have taste buds?
1. No taste buds
2. Largest, divides tongue
3. mushroom shapre
4. Leaf shape, most senditive-- tip and sides of tongue
They regenerate every 10 days.
Superior oblique moves the eye how?
Down and out
Up and out
1. Conjuctiva =
Name the 2 layers of this and where they are located
The thin, transparent mucous membrane which covers the eye and lines the eyelid.
1. Palpebral- Covers inner surface of eyelid
2. Bulbar- covers the inner surface of eye
Layers of the eye:
1. Fibrous tunic:
2. Vascular tunic:
3. Nervous :
1. Sclera & Cornea
- 2. Choriod, ciliary body, iris
1. Maintains shape of eye
- 2. Bends the light, part of focusing
2. Ciliary Body
3. Ciliary Muscles
1. Choroid is part of vascular tunic, very thin. Associated with sclera
2. Ciliary body produces aqueous humor and fills anterior chanber. Iris attaches to ciliary body
3. Ciliary muscles change shape of lens
4. Iris regulates the amount of light entering the pupil (colored)
1. Sphincter pupillae
2. Dialator pupillae
1. parasympathetic, pupil constriction
2. sympathetic, pupil dialation
Nervous tunic has 2 layers:
1. Pigmented retina
2. Sensory retina
1. Outer reduces light scattering
2. Made of Rods and cones
1. Rods and cones synapse with what cells--->
2. Fovea centralis:
3. optic disc
1. bipolar cells which synapse with ganglion cells in all areas except fovea centralis
2. greatest visula acuity
3. blind spot
1. spatial summation
2. Responsible for color vision and visual acuity
1. Anterior compartment
- anterior chamber
1. Anterior to lens. Filled with aqueous humor-- helps maintain intraoccular pressure
-between cornea and iris
-between iris and lens
Abnormal increase in intraoccular pressure due to abnormal circulation of aqueous humor
Canal of Schlem
the production and removal of aqueous humor is returned to venous circulation via the canal of schlem
The thickening, aging and clouding of the lens
What makes the lens change shape?
cornea or lens not properly shaped causing and inability to focus
What is the path of light.
What regulates the amount of light which enters the eye?
How does light enter the eye?
The iris regulates amount of light.
By controlling the size of the pupil
Through the pupil
Far point of vision:
The point at which the lens does not have to thicken to focus. 20ft or more
Near point of vision
- Closer than 20 feet.
- Changes lens and size of pupil,
- lens become more spherical
When an object is moved closer to the eye, the eyes rotate medially
Which tract, temporal or nasal crosses at the optic chiasm? and then name the path it follows after that.
The nasal tract crosses at the optic chiasm and project to the opposite side of the brain. Then heads to the lateral geniculate of the thalmus. Then cerebral cortex
3. degeneration of sight- corrected by sight
4. Cornea or lens not uniformally curved
External ear consists of:
- -Auricle/ pinna
- -lined with ceruminous glands which produce wax
- -tympanic membrane (boarder between external and internal middle ear)
1. Middle ear contains what?
2. Oval window
1. Auditory ossicles (
malleus, inculous, stapes) corda tympani, auditory/eustacian tube. Opens to pharnyx- equalizes pressure
- 2. Foot of stapes rests here where the connection between middle and inner ear.
Inner ear is responsible for what?
Hearing and balance
What's the fluid called in the ear labyrinth?
Basilar membrane responds to what frequency of vibrations?
Hair cells in the organ of corti are called what?
Stereocillia. And as they bend they open k+ channels (mechanically gated)
The cochlea is innervated by what CN
Scala media aka cochlear duct contains what?
Evaluates the position of your head to gravity. Detects linear acceleration and deacceleration
1. Kinetic labyrinth
2. What is the sensory epithelium?
3. What detects the rate of change?
- 1. Evaluates movement of head in 3D space
- 3 semicircular canals filled with endolymph
2. crista ampularis