Card Set Information
Mountain State University Physician Assistant Class of 2014 - Pathophysiology Ch 31
Describe intracellular fluid compartment?
All of the fluid in body cells
2/3 of body fluid
High concentration of K+
Almost no Ca
Small qt of Na Cl bicarb Ph
Describe extracellular fluid compartment
1/3 of body fluid
All fluid outside of cells blood interstitial
High concentration of Na+ and Cl-
moderate amounts of bicarb
Small qt of K Mg Ca Ph
What are the three kinds of tonicity?
hypotonic - cells swell
Isotonic - no change
Hypertonic - cells shrink
Three types of edema?
What causes edema?
Increased hydrostatic pressure
Decreased oncotic pressure
How do you lose water?
Kidneys - urine
Skin - sweat
Lungs - humidity
GI - feces
What physiologic signs indicate decreased fluid volume?
Increased heart rate
Decreased blood pressure
Decreased venous return
Decreased capillary refill rate
What is psychogenic poly dipsia?
Compulsive water drinking
Cigarette smoking and anti psycotic meds can increase adh
What is diabetes insipidous?
Decreased response or deficiency of ADH
Unable to concentrate urine
Excrete large amounts of urine
What are four causes of decreased sodium and water elimination?
What are four methods for assessing edema?
Measurement of affected part
Finger pressure for pitting
What are the normal concentrations for potassium?
Intracellular 140-150 mEq/L
Extracellular 3.5-5 mEq/L
What causes abnormal potassium?
Hypo - inadequate intake, excessive GI renal skin loss
Redistribution ecf to icf
Hyper - decresed renal elimimation, rapid intake, icf to ecf
How does vitamin d regulate calcium and phosphorus?
Increases their absorbtion from the intestine
What does calcitonin do?
Acts on the kidney and bone to remove calcium from the extracellular circulation
What are the three forms of ecf calcium?
40% bound to albumin
What are the causes and symptoms of hyper calcemia?
Increased gi absorption
Increased bone resorption
Decresed neural excitability
What are the causes and symptoms of hypo calcemia?
Cannot mobilize bone stores
Abnormal loss from kidney
Increased neuromuscular excitability
What is the role of phosphorus in the body?
Formation of atp
Enzymes for glucose fat protein
Compenets of cell
Acids of dna rna phospholipids
What causes hypophosphatemia?
Insufficient gi absorbtion
Increased renal loss
What causes hyperphosphatemia?
Renal failure to excrete
Rapid icf to ecf
Why is magnesium important?
Essential to all reactions that require atp
What is the path of magnesium on the body?
Intake in diet
Absorbed in intestine
Excreted by kidney
What is the manifestation of hypomagnesemia?
Less than 1.8 mg/dl
Personality change, tetany, positive chvostek and trousseau sign
Tachycardia hypertension dysarythmia
What are the manifestations of hypermagnesemia?
Excessive intake decreased excretion