Patho ch31.txt

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109662
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Patho ch31.txt
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2011-10-17 17:17:32
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Mountain State University Physician Assistant Class of 2014 - Pathophysiology Ch 31
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  1. Describe intracellular fluid compartment?
    • All of the fluid in body cells
    • 2/3 of body fluid
    • High concentration of K+
    • Almost no Ca
    • Small qt of Na Cl bicarb Ph
    • Moderate magnesium
  2. Describe extracellular fluid compartment
    • 1/3 of body fluid
    • All fluid outside of cells blood interstitial
    • High concentration of Na+ and Cl-
    • moderate amounts of bicarb
    • Small qt of K Mg Ca Ph
  3. What are the three kinds of tonicity?
    • hypotonic - cells swell
    • Isotonic - no change
    • Hypertonic - cells shrink
  4. Three types of edema?
    • Pitting edema
    • Nonpitting edema
    • Brawny edema
  5. What causes edema?
    • Increased hydrostatic pressure
    • Decreased oncotic pressure
    • Increased permeability
    • Obstructed lymph
  6. How do you lose water?
    • Kidneys - urine
    • Skin - sweat
    • Lungs - humidity
    • GI - feces
  7. What physiologic signs indicate decreased fluid volume?
    • Increased heart rate
    • Decreased blood pressure
    • Decreased venous return
    • Decreased capillary refill rate
  8. What is psychogenic poly dipsia?
    • Compulsive water drinking
    • Psychiaric disorders
    • Schizophrenia
    • Cigarette smoking and anti psycotic meds can increase adh
  9. What is diabetes insipidous?
    • Decreased response or deficiency of ADH
    • Unable to concentrate urine
    • Excrete large amounts of urine
  10. What are four causes of decreased sodium and water elimination?
    • Renal dysfunction
    • Heart failure
    • Liver failure
    • Corticosteriod excess
  11. What are four methods for assessing edema?
    • Daily weight
    • Visual assessment
    • Measurement of affected part
    • Finger pressure for pitting
  12. What are the normal concentrations for potassium?
    • Intracellular 140-150 mEq/L
    • Extracellular 3.5-5 mEq/L
  13. What causes abnormal potassium?
    • Hypo - inadequate intake, excessive GI renal skin loss
    • Redistribution ecf to icf
    • Hyper - decresed renal elimimation, rapid intake, icf to ecf
  14. How does vitamin d regulate calcium and phosphorus?
    Increases their absorbtion from the intestine
  15. What does calcitonin do?
    Acts on the kidney and bone to remove calcium from the extracellular circulation
  16. What are the three forms of ecf calcium?
    • 40% bound to albumin
    • 10% complexed
    • 50% ionized
  17. What are the causes and symptoms of hyper calcemia?
    • Increased gi absorption
    • Increased bone resorption
    • Decresed elimimation
    • Decresed neural excitability
  18. What are the causes and symptoms of hypo calcemia?
    • Cannot mobilize bone stores
    • Abnormal loss from kidney
    • Increased complexing
    • Increased neuromuscular excitability
  19. What is the role of phosphorus in the body?
    • Bone formation
    • Formation of atp
    • Enzymes for glucose fat protein
    • Compenets of cell
    • Acids of dna rna phospholipids
  20. What causes hypophosphatemia?
    • Insufficient gi absorbtion
    • Transcompartmental shift
    • Increased renal loss
  21. What causes hyperphosphatemia?
    • Renal failure to excrete
    • Rapid icf to ecf
    • Excessive intake
  22. Why is magnesium important?
    Essential to all reactions that require atp
  23. What is the path of magnesium on the body?
    • Intake in diet
    • Absorbed in intestine
    • Excreted by kidney
  24. What is the manifestation of hypomagnesemia?
    • Less than 1.8 mg/dl
    • Personality change, tetany, positive chvostek and trousseau sign
    • Tachycardia hypertension dysarythmia
  25. What are the manifestations of hypermagnesemia?
    Excessive intake decreased excretion

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