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What are some advantages of the Americans in the revolutions?
- Home court Advantage
- Many British didnt want a full-scale war against colonies
- British questioned how to pay
- Risky to send best troops with European enemies close
- Must bring troops and supplies from across the Atlantic
- Troops spread thinly around world and didnt understand cause
What were the advantages of the British in the revolution?
- Superior resources
- 9 million people w/ 2.5 million colonists
- Large stocks of war material
- Industrial ability to boost them further
- Well-trained and experienced army
- Highly centralized government
- Master of the seas
What were the weaknesses of America in the revolution?
- No money
- Short in supply
- No war materials
- Few proper uniforms
- Hated military discipline
- Washington had to create army from scratch
- Lack of military experience
- Ineffiency and corruption
Who were the British leaders?
- Gage (hated colonists)
- Howe (sympethetic to colonists cause)
- Clinton (fought in the south)
Where did the war begin? What happened afterward?
- Lexington and Concord
- In the 2nd Continental Congress met
Who was the president of the 2nd Continental Congress?
What did the soldiers do to save ammunition?
To not fire their guns until they could see the whites of their eyes
What was the role of the 2nd Continental Congress?
- Originally called to plan further protests but took on role of central government
- Began negotiations to persuade King and Parliment to change ways tried to encourage French in Canada to rebel
Who appointed General Washington commander of Continental Army?
The 2nd Continental Congress
What was General Washington appointed commander?
- Honeat honorable man
- Had war experience
- Represented the south
- Was an FFV (first family of VA)
- Took no money for his deeds
- His selection was as much political as personality
What was the Olive Branch Petition?
- Last attempt at peace
- The king said it was treasonous
What was the Battle of Quebec?
- A 2 pronged plan to go to Canada
- It failed
What were the 2 events that lead to the break between the colonies and england?
- The english were hiring Hessians (german soldiers) to fight the colonists (they were ruthless)
- The publication of Common Sense by Thomas Page (the pamplet was anonymous)
What did the the Common sense pamphlet say?
- Nowhere in the physical universe does a smaller body control a larger one
- The power comes from the people not the king
- It called for a new political society
- He erges Americans to seperate from English
Why pamphlet opposed Common Sense?
Plain Truth by James Chalmers
What was the the age of reason?
- Also known as enlightenment
- By using reasons humans could manage themselves & society w/o depending on authorities
- Had little interest in supernatural or afterlife
- Wrote in science, ethnics or govt. rather than religion
Who were the major folks in the period of enlightenment?
- Ben Franklin
- Thomas Jefferson
- Thomas Payne
Difference from Europe during enlightenment?
Get to test ideas about freedoms by creating a new society
Who is John Locke?
- An english professor
- Stated the...
- -"State of Nature"
- -"Natural Man"
What is the "State of Nature"? Who came up with it?
- A man is by nature free and equal independent of eachother
- John Locke
What is "Natural Man" mean? Who came up with it?
- Each man had possesion of his own body
- John Locke
What happens when men apply labor to land?
He transforms what was formerly common into his own private property
How would men protect themselves and hard won possessions from attack by wicked individuals?
Men would agree to a social compact to end complete independence that exist in the state of nature
What would men do to protect life, liberty, and property?
Form a society under the supervision of government
How were governments instituted?
By consent of the governed for a definite purpose
What did John Locke say happens if any government fails to fulfill it's purpose?
It should be replaced by one that will
What did people in the wilderness the the duty of the government was?
the protect natural rights
How did the people look at the English government?
exceeding its power or authority
Where are John Lockes ideas directly seen?
in the Declaration of Independence
What did Abigail write to John Adams?
- "Don't forget about the ladies..."
- "remember all men could be tyrants.."
- "we should have to follow laws in which we had no voice in..."
Where did Bengamin Franklin go with formal declaration? When?
to france after the Declaration of Independence
what are loyalists?
- aka "tories"
- dominant political party of england
what are patriots?
- aka "whigs"
- opposition faction in england
How did most of the people feel about the revolution?
they didn't care
According to John Adams what was the ratio of the opinion of the revolution?
- 1/3 Patriots
- 1/3 Tories
- 1/3 Neutral
Why did Great Britain not justify a rebellion?
because they didn't feel it was worth it over taxes
What was the typical loyalist?
- older folks
- those with ties to the king
Why didn't tories band together?
- no organization
- no leadership
- no central commity
What was the famous Quote by Nathan Hale?
"I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country."
who painted Washington Crossing the Deleware?
What did General Washington read to the troops before they fought the Hessains crossing the deleware?
The Crisis by Thomas Paine
What was the turning point of the revolution? Why?
- the battle of Saratoga
- because the French officially helped the Americans
How did the french help with the battle of Saratoga?
the Continental Army was largely supplied and paid for with gofts and loans
What did the British do after Saratoga? How did the Americans react?
- British gave in on all issues before 1775
- Its too late because they already have a treaty with france
What was paper money called?
"continental" and it was useless
What was it like during the winter at valley forge?
- a very hard winter
- 1/4 of origianl 10,000 died
Where were the British when the Americans were at Valley Forge?
Who was Marquis de Lafayette?
- a French officer who was friends with General Washington
- he came to help the American army to fight better
Who made the americans "fighting men"? What were some other things he did to help the army?
- Wlhem von Steuban reorganized the army
- those who were trained under him became professionals
- Devised system to curb waste
Who is John Paul Jones? What is his famous quote?
- the Greatest naval hero in American History
- "I have not yet begun to fight"
Whe turned on America in 1780?
Who did Britain turn to in the Americas?
What was the Battle of mountain king?
Backcountry stalked loyalists and surrounded them on mountain
Who was nathanial greene placed in charge of?
What what Francis Marion's nickname? why?
- "swamp fox"
- because of his guerrila tactics
Who lead a fleet to block entrance of Chesapeake bay of Yorktown?
Who was waiting on land of Yorktown to trick Cornwallis?
Rochambeau and Washington
What did the battle of Yorktown mark?
- the end of the official fighting
- they actually fought for another year after
Why did the British surrender?
- heavy losses in West Indies
- national debt doubled since 1775
- Rule of King George III ended
Which party was favored by the colonies after the war?
What was the problem between America and Fracne?
the french weren't looking out forbest interests of americans
Who did Continental Congress appoint?
- Ben Franklin
- John Jay
- John Adams
- Thomas Jeffereson
What agreement did the American and French decide to make peace?
- to seperate peacefully from France
- The Treaty of Paris (1783) was made
What does the Treaty of Paris (1783) state?
- 1) Fromally recongized U.S.
- 2) Generous Boundaried for U.S.
- land south of great lakes, East of Miss. river, and North of Florida
- 3) British agreed to remove troops from American soil
- 4) Tory land- provide restitution
What did the americans learn from the treaty of paris?
the importance of playing one power agaisnt another
Who was the "Father of American Navy"?
Who took her Husbands cannon after he was killed?
Martha Cochram Corbin
Who diguised herself to enlist in continental army?
Deborah Sampson Gannett