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2011-10-23 16:25:49
Chapter Muscular System

Chapter 8 Muscular System
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  1. Skeletal muscle
    • Voluntary
    • Striated
    • Over 600 in body
  2. Smooth or Visceral Muscle
    • Involuntary (unconscious control)
    • Nonstriated
    • Found in internal organs where there is movement (wall of digestive organs, wall of glands & blood vessels)
  3. Cardiac Muscle
    • Involuntary
    • Striated
    • Found in myocardium (middle layer of heart)
  4. 4 Functions of muscles
    • Movement
    • Heat production
    • Maintain posture
    • Protect internal organs
  5. Acetylcholine
    Chemical neurotransmitter released by nerve cell at the end of the axon
  6. Contractility
    The ability to contact ie the muscle shortens & changes its shape
  7. Hypertrophy
    Increase in size due to increased usage
  8. Atrophy
    Decrease in size due to lack of use
  9. Anabolic steroids
    • Mimic effects of male sex hormone testosterone
    • Promote metabolism & stimulate growth
    • Promote muscle regeneration & prevent atrophy from disuse after surgery
    • Used illegally to enhance athletic performance
  10. 3 Effects of exercise
    • 1. Stretching: promotes flexibility & helps with balance
    • 2. Aerobic: improves endurance
    • 3. Resistance training: muscles cells increase in size (hypertrophy)
  11. Tonic contraction (muscle tone)
    The state of partial contraction of muscles when we are not moving
  12. Isotonic contraction
    The movement produced when a muscles shortens and thickens but the muscle tone remains the same ex. lifting weights, walking, running
  13. Isometric contraction
    Involves no shortening or thickening of the muscle but the muscle tone increases ex. pushing hands against a wall
  14. Nerve of innervation
    Nerve that causes muscle to contract
  15. Aponeurosis
    Sheet of connective tissue that attach a muscle to bone or to other muscle
  16. Prime mover
    The main muscle making the movement
  17. Synergist
    A muscle that helps the prime mover with the movement
  18. Antagonist
    The muscle that makes the opposite movement of the prime mover
  19. Bursa
    Little sacs of fluid found near joints for cushioning
  20. Orbicularis oculi
    Closes eye
  21. Orbicularis oris
    Closes mouth
  22. Masseter
  23. Buccinator
    Flattens the fleshy part of the cheek, "trumpeters" muscle
  24. Sternocleidomastoid
    2 muscles together flex head forward, 1 alone rotates the head
  25. Trapezius
    • Extends the head, then may hyperextend the head
    • Raises the shoulders, pulls them back, like "standing at attention"
  26. Pectoralis major
    Adducts the upper arm across the chest
  27. Latissimus dorsi
    Adducts the upper arm behind the back, "swimmer's muscle"
  28. Deltoid
    Abducts the upper arm
  29. Biceps brachii
    Flexes the forearm at the elbow joint
  30. Triceps brachii
    Extends the forearm at the elbow joint
  31. Rectus abdominis
    Flexes forward at the waist, the "6 pack"
  32. Internal & external oblique
    Twisting motions at the waist
  33. Quadriceps femoris group of muscles
    • Flexes the upper leg at the hip joint
    • Extends the lower leg at the knee joint
  34. Gluteus maximus
    Extends the upper leg at the hip joint
  35. Gluteus medius
    Abducts the upper leg at the hip joint
  36. Hamstring group of muscles
    Flexes the lower leg at the knee joint
  37. Gastrocnemius
    Extends the foot at the ankle joint, plantar flexes "gas pedal motion"
  38. Tibialis anterior
    Flexes the foot at the ankle joint, dorsiflexes (pulling toe toward face)
  39. 4 Recommended Intramuscular Injection sites
    • 1. Gluteus medius or ventral gluteal muscle
    • 2. Deltoid of lateral shoulder muscle
    • 3. Vastus lateralis or lateral thigh muscle
    • 4. Rectus femoris or anterior thigh muscle
  40. Muscle cell (muscle fiber)
    Filaments -> fibrils -> muscle fiber