Ecology exam 2

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Ecology exam 2
2011-10-18 01:50:40

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  1. How does a flower have different thermal conditions?
    • Petals of flower reflect sun to warm up middle of flower.
    • Heated up warmer than air to attract ectothermic insects.
    • Then gets pollinated
  2. Air vs. soil temperature fluctuation
    Air temperature fluctuated more than soil temperature
  3. How does color affect temperature?
    • Black sand absorbs all wavelengths of visible light
    • White sand reflects all wavelengths of visible light
  4. Latent heat of evaporation
    Latent heat of fusion
    • Requires an "x"amount of heat to evaporate an "x" amount of sweat
    • Requires an "x" amount of heat to melt an"x" amount of water
    • When going the opposite way of chart, shows how much heat is released
  5. Stream/aquatic temperatures
    • Riparian vegetation influences stream temperature by providing shade
    • Riffles have broader range of temp. than pools because it is in contact with the air more
    • Angle range(temp.) is less in aquatic than terrestrial(lakes are cooler than air because it is sweating)
  6. Acclimation
    • Physiological changes in response to temperature.
    • An organism will change their temp. toleration over a lifetime. Organisms housed in cold/warm temp. perform better in those temperatures. ADAPTIONS
  7. How do temperatures affect photosynthesis?
    Extreme temperatures usually reduce rates of photosynthesis
  8. Hs=Hm+or-Hcd+or-Hcv+or-Hr-He
    • Hs=Total heat stored in an organism
    • Hm=Gained via metabolism, large in endodermic small in ectothermic
    • Hcd=Gained/lost via conduction, heat transfer via direct contact High-->low heat
    • Hcv=Gained/lost via convection, aquatic to water terrestrial to air
    • Hr=Gained/lost via electromag. radiation, lose if we are warmer than environment
    • He=Lost via evaporation
    • Hc=Heat of condensation, add water to warm
  9. Heat exchange pathways with plants
    • Hm=photosynthesis(metabolism)
    • Hr=gained&lost by radiation
    • He=lost by evaporation of water
    • Hcv=gained/lost of convection of wind
    • Hcd=gained/lost by soil or ground, depends if a lot of the plant is underground
  10. Poikilotherms
    • Body temp. varies
    • Rely mainly on external energy sources
    • Rely heavily on metabolic energy
    • Maintains constant internal environment
  11. Temperature regulation by plants
    • Hs=Hcd+or-Hcv+or-Hr
    • Desert plants must reduce heat storage
    • To avoid heating must decrease heating via conduction, increase convective cooling, reduce radiative heating
    • Low stems on bottom to reduce conductive heating
  12. Temperature regulation by desert plants
    • Low conductive heat gain from ground
    • High convective heat loss to wind, open growth and small leaves increase exposure
    • Highly reflective leaves and parallel leaves reduce heat gain by radiation
  13. Plant type vs. temperature
    • Cushion plants have a temperature far above air temperature(a lot of plant in contact with ground&revealed to sun)
    • Open willows temperature matches air temperature
  14. Ectothermic animals
    • Lizard=preferred temp. matches maximized metabolic energy temp. Also basks in the sun
    • Grasshoppers can change pigmentation for radiative heating
  15. Endothermic animals
    • Thermal neutral zone=temps. where metabolic rate of a homeothermic animal doesn't change
    • Gets heat from metabolism
    • Birds=Doesn't have to change metabolic rate because of thermal neutral zone
    • Shivering=Elevating metabolic levels to generate more heat
  16. Thermal neutral zones
    • Humans=super narrow
    • Chart shows at which temp. mammals have to alter metabolic rate
    • Sea otters have high metabolism, consumes 25% of body weight everyday
  17. Concurrent heat exchange
    • Some fish are endothermic(lots of swimming muscle&lots of blood vessels that are concurrent heat exchangers)
    • Heat flows from warm incoming blood to cool returning blood due to Hcd and Hcv
    • Heat flows from veins to arteries due to Hcd and Hcv
  18. Temperature regulation by thermogenic plants
    • Almost all plants are poikilothermic
    • Skunk cabbage stores starch in large root then transfers to inflorescence to metabolize&generate heat(respiration)
    • Snow is melted by Hr, Hcd, and Hm.
  19. Surviving extreme temperatures
    • Inactivity=seek shelter
    • Reduce metabolic rate=Hummingbirds enter torpor when food is scarce&night temps are extreme, not all endotherms are homeotherms
    • Hibernation=winter
    • Estivation=summer
    • Extremelophiles=be completely inactive in too hot/cold weather
  20. Relative humidity
    • Water vapor density x100=
    • Saturation of water vapor density

    Relative humidity decreases with higher temps.
  21. Vapor pressure deficit
    • WVP-SWVP
    • Water vapor pressure=partial pressure due to water vapor
    • Saturation water vapor pressure=pressure exerted by water vapor in air saturated by water
    • Greater VPD=more evaporation
    • In florida, WVP&SWVP is high, so VPD is low
  22. Evaporative water loss
    • High VPD=water vapor content is below saturation
    • High VPD=rate of evaporative water loss is high, water concentration gradient is steep
  23. Water movement in aquatic environments
    • Water moves down concentration gradient(more conc. in freshwater than in oceans)
    • Osmosis=diffusion of water through semi-permeable membrane, high to low concentration
  24. Isomotic
    • Body fluids and external fluid are at the same concentration
    • Starfish
  25. Hypo-osmotic
    • Body fluids are at a higher concentration of water.
    • Lower solutes than external environment
    • Net movement of water going out fish
  26. Hyper-osmotic
    • Body fluids are at a lower concentration of water
    • Higher solutes than the external environment
    • Net movement of water going in fish
  27. Water Potential
    • Matric forces=water's tendency to adhere to container walls
    • Evaporation from leaf creates negative pressure
    • Water potential in plant<water potential in soil
    • Water potential of zero=pure
    • High to low potential
  28. Water regulation on land of animals
    • Wia=Wd+Wf+Wa-We-Ws
    • Wia=animal's internal water
    • Wd=drinking
    • Wf=food, direct water
    • Wa=absorbed by air, small b/c we lose more through evaporation
    • We=evaporation, humans lose a lot(sweat)
    • Ws=secretion/excretion, urine
  29. Osmoregulation by marine organisms
    • Marine organism lose water to environment, salt tends to diffuse into body, salt glands and urine and gills gets rid of it.
    • Fish drinks lots of water to compensate for water loss by diffusion
  30. Osmoregulation by freshwater organisms
    • Water diffuses into fish
    • Take in salts with food&gills
    • Excretes water in large amounts in urine
  31. What are deep sea organisms
    invertebrates, which means they are poikilotherms, homeotherms, and ectotherms
  32. When water freezes, heat is released
  33. Under what conditions do people survive extended periods of submergence?
    falling into pond water
  34. Can something that lacks water and metabolism be considered living?
    yes, seeds or ferry shrimps
  35. How does a cicada survive in the hot desert?s
    • sweating, evaporative cooling
    • Poikilotherms
  36. Hot, dry heat is most likely referred to..
    heat of vaporization
  37. Water regulation with frogs/animals
    • Gains water by food and drinking, metabolism through oxidation of glucose
    • C6H12O6 + 6O2-->6CO2 + 6H2O
    • Loss by evaporation
    • Gain by absorption
    • Loss by secretion
  38. Water regulation in kangaroo rats
    • Can obtain all water from just food, no drinking
    • Most water loss through evaporation
    • Moderate water loss=secretions
    • Water intake=water losses
    • Has adaptions to minimize water loss(efficient kidneys=conc. urine, membranes in nose=collects condensed air)
  39. Location of animal vs. water losses
    • Water losses vary, depending on where the animal lives.
    • Turtles in dry areas lose less water compared to turtles in ponds, who lose a lot of water.
  40. Water regulation of plants
    • Wip=Wr +Wa -Wt -Ws
    • Wip= Plant’s internal water
    • Wr =Roots, shallow roots in water deep roots in dry
    • Wa=Air
    • Wt = Transpiration
    • Ws = Secretions
  41. Structure of plant affects water regulation
    • Wind transports heat&water away from plants
    • Some absorption with leaves in moist air
    • Gain water through roots
    • Lose through transpiration&evaporation
    • Sometimes secretes water w/ nectar
    • Leaf can wilt to reduce sunlight&reduce transpiration
  42. Camels and water storage
    Does not store water in humps
  43. Why don't plants have as many water conservation methods as animals?
    Not mobile
  44. How do cacti conserve water
    Large chambers and deep roots
  45. What is the largest use of water by colorado?
  46. Water regulation by camels
    • Reduce heat gain by facing into the sun
    • Takes in massive amounts of water
    • Hump has fat, that is a source of metabolic water
    • Dense hair reduces heat gain
    • Reduce evaporative water loss by not sweating and allowing body temp to rise
  47. Cicada and body temp
    • Body temp. is below air temp.
    • Placed in a chamber with 100% humidity and body temp. raises
    • Body temp. falls back below air temp. in initial chamber
  48. Energy sources
    • Autotrophs=use inorganic as sources of carbon and energy.
    • Photo(CO2&sunlight) plants=photons
    • chemo(inorganic molecules) use energy released when CO2 is released from minerals
    • Heterotrophs=use organic molecules
    • All organism get energy from fixed carbon
  49. Trophics&organisms
    • prokaryotes-hetero, photo, chemo
    • protists- hetero, photo
    • plants-photo(protists, sea fans are hetero&photo)
    • fungi-hetero(mistletoe)
    • animals-hetero(sea slugs, eats chlorophyll&becomes photosynthetic)
  50. PAR
    • Photosynthetically active radiation
    • Wavelengths of photosynthesis range that plants can use
    • 10% reflected back out, 79% canopy absorbs, 7% middle canopy, 2% lowest area
    • Trees adapted to grow taller
  51. C3 photosynthesis
    • Mesophyll cells
    • Stomata opens, CO2 enters, then reduced
    • RuBP is a 5 carbon chain that joins with CO2
    • First product is a 3-carbon molecule
    • Cycle goes around 6 times
    • Rubisco=abundant enzyme that drives this rxn
    • Final product is glucose/sugar can be combined to form starch
  52. C4 photosynthesis
    • corn, competitive in high light environments, prairies
    • CO2 diffuse inside leaf through stomata
    • In mesophyll, CO2 used to carboxylate PIP, produces four carbons
    • Few stomata need to be open
    • C4 diffuses to bundle sheath cell, breaks down to pyruvate and CO2
    • CO2 in bundle sheath combines with RuBP to form PGA, glucose
    • Pyruvate goes back to bundle sheath cell to form PEP and starts cycle again
  53. CAM photosynthesis
    • similar to C4 in biochemistry
    • takes place at night
    • combines PEP with CO2 to form four carbon acids
    • C4 acids synthesized at night break down during the day to pyruvate and CO2
    • CO2 combines with RuBP to form PGA
    • Pyruvate converted to PEP, combines with CO2 and starts cycle again
  54. Feeding methods of heterotrophs
    • Herbivores
    • Carnivores
    • Detritivores
  55. C-N ratio in organisms
    • High C:N ratio shows plants are rich in carbon and poor in nitrogen
    • Low C:N ratios show animals, bacteria, and fungi are rich in nitrogen
    • Starch, sugar, cellulose=carbon
    • Proteins=nitrogen(soybeans&legumes)
  56. C:N ratio in parts of plants
    • Woody tissues of pine trunks and branches have high C:N ratios, rich in carbon poor in nitrogen
    • C:N ratio of pine needles is lower and similar to herbaceous plants in forest understory
    • Termites convert wood to protein
  57. Temperature forests vs. Tropical forests
    • Tropical forests have greater diversity, so more herbivoric pressure, need chemical defenses
    • Secondary metabolites=not used in photosynthesis/respiration
  58. Detritivores
    • consume food rich in carbon and energy, but poor iin nitrogen
    • protects food/resources
  59. Carnivores
    • Consume nutritionally rich prey
    • Cannot choose prey at will because of prey defenses
    • Eliminates more conspicuous(less adaptive) prey
  60. Prey defenses
    • Aposomatic cooling=warning colors. warning colors, bright, flashy
    • Mullerian mimicry=nasty, banding, black&orange, costs, dies after stinging
    • Batesian mimicry=has mimic, but not harmful, not contributing to cost
  61. Optimal foraging theory
    • If energy supplies are limited, organisms cannot simultaneously maximize all life functions
    • Must compromise between competing demands for resources(principle of allocation)
    • Eat most abundant, beneficial, and least harmful meal
  62. Feeding preferences
    • is the plant structurally suitable?
    • is it chemically suitable?
    • is it nutritious?
  63. Optimal foraging by plants
    • limited supplies of energy for allocation to leaves, stems, and roots
    • plants adjust allocation so that all resources are equally limited(bloom)
    • allocates growth to increase rate of acquisition of resources in shortest supply
  64. Structures of plants and foraging
    • Shoots=light
    • Roots=nutrients and water
    • Acquires resources by matching light with nutrients
    • If light is limited, allocate nutrients to shoots
    • If water is limited, allocate resources to roots