molecular biology history.txt

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  1. Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier
    Proposed that COMBUSTION of organic molecules (O2 and carbs) used same reactants & generated same products (CO2 and H20) as AEROBIC respiration in animals
  2. Jons Jakob Berlins
    • 1. Established present-day NOMENCLATURE for chem. ELEMENTS
    • 2. Described essential FXN of ENZYME (substrates continuously consumed, products continuously produced, enzyme LEVELS stay SAME)
  3. Louis Pasteur
    • 1. Described 1st known pair of STEREOISOMERS
    • 2. 1st metabolic rxns w/out OXYGEN (anaerobic fermentation)
    • 3. GERM theory of disease
  4. Hans & Eduard Buchner
    Discovered that cell-free extracts of yeast contain ENZYMES which CATALYZE anaerobic fermentation
  5. Emil Fischer
    • 1. Proposed ALL ENZYMES are PROTEINS
    • 2. All proteins made of AMINO ACIDS
    • 3. All enzymes have SPECIFICITY for their substrates
  6. Wiliam Henry Bragg & William Laurence Bragg
    • Invented X-Ray spectrometer to ID broken leg
    • Showed Regular spacing of ATOMS in crystalline molecules (ie: protein & DNA)
  7. Hermann Standinger
    • 1st to suggest very high weight organic molecules (macromolecules) are SYNTHESIZED from smaller units
    • All org. composed of macromolecules
  8. Theodor Svedberg
    • demonstrated Proteins were of HIGH molecular weight
  9. Fredrick Griffith
    Discovered a transforming principle could change R-strain (rough) Pneumococci into VIRULENT S-strain (smooth)
  10. Warren Weaver
    • Formulated rules for machine-based translation of languages
    • coined term MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
  11. Linus Pauling (1939)
    Analysis of chem bonds for 1st PROTEIN models to be constructed (including a helices & b sheets)...from quantum mechanics (#s)
  12. Oswald Avery, Colin MacLeod, Maclyn McCarty
    • Discovered transforming principle in Strep. pneumoniae was made of DNA (not lipids, pro or carb)
    • DNA transformed R-strain --> S-strain
    • Discovered Nucleic acids were 1st genetic material
  13. Salvador Luria & Max Delbruck
    Bacteria resistance in E-coli resulted from pre-existing MUTATIONS
  14. George Beadle & Edward Tatum
    Mutations in bread mold were associated w/Enzyme change, leading to the 1 gene...1 enzyme model
  15. Josh Lederberg
    • 1st Evidence of recombination in E. coli - allowed for Gene MAPPING in bac
    • can get conjugation of cells, not equal sharing of DNA as w/euk.
  16. Erwin Chargoff (1950)
    A=T & G=C (Chargoff's rule)
  17. Frederick Sanger (1951)
    Determined AA Seq of INSULIN & used Dideoxy method for DNA
  18. Alfred Hershey & Martha Chase (1952)
    • 32P transmitted from T4 parental virus to offspring (thru E. coli host cels, but NOT 35S.
    • SHOWED DNA was the GENETIC material
    • Used sulfur & Phosphorous to trace by labelling P32 (phosphorous), which incorporated into DNA but NOT protein
    • 35S incorporated into PROTEIN but NOT DNA
  19. Watson, Crick, Wilkins, Franklin, Donohue, Griffith (1953)
    • 1st proposed Double helix structure of DNA
    • Crystallography photoraphs of DNA (showed A & B DNA forms)
    • Purine & pyrimidine base chemistry @ diff pH conditions
  20. Harold Ureg & Stanley Miller (1953)
    • Amino acids could form from the following: H2, NH3, CH4 with boiling H20 & electric sparks
    • (showed organic compounds formed from early earth conditions)
  21. Arthur Kornberg
    • Discovered DNA poly I by tracing THYMIDINE in E coli and seeing a 'BUBBLE' during replication
    • Showed replication was bi-directional
  22. Matt Meselson & Frank Stahl
    • Showed DNA replication was SEMI-CONSERVATIVE
    • Made the PERFECT experiment, showing N15 isotope & N14 isotopes for each DNA strand of F1 (parental was 2 N15)
  23. Andrew Luoff, Jacob, Monod, Pardee (1959)
    • Operon model of gene regulation of LACTOSE metabolism
    • Lysogenic viruses could PREVENT enzyme synthesis w/out alterine enzymes in E. coli
  24. Max Perutz, John Kendrew (1959)
    1st crystallography of HEMOglobin & MYOglobin: verified presence of 'a helicies' & 'b sheets' (Pauling's earlier hypoth)
  25. Marshall Nirenberg, Matthuei (1961)
    • put lots of uracils on RNA...led to finding the mRNA TRIPLET nucleotide code
    • Determined if you know the RNA sequence, you CAN determine AA sequence...but NOT the other way around
  26. Reiji & Tsuneko Okazaki
    • Demonstrated (using H-thymidine) that DNA replication in E. coli was SEMI-DISCONTINUOUS
    • Leading and lagging strand DNA fragments appeared on SDS PAGE gel when looking at the labelled thymidine
  27. Motoo Kimura (1968)
    Used Wright's model to argue NON-SELECTIVE forces account for most genetic VARIABILITY
  28. David Baltimore & Howard Jemin (1970)
    • Discovered REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE violated central dogma
    • Allowed RNA to be reverse transcribed to DNA
  29. Paul Berg (1972)
    Used RESTRICTION enzymes for recombining DNA of 2 different SPECIES
  30. Tom Cech & Sidney Altman
    1st to discover CATALYTIC RNA
  31. Harry Noller
    • If proteins removed & only Ribosomal RNA, the RNA (rRNA) acted to form peptide bonds b/w molecules and ACT AS ENZYMES
    • carries out catalytic activity of peptide bond formation
  32. Kary Mullis (1983)
    • 1st to DEVELOP PCR for in vitro amplification fo DNA
    • Taq polymerase found to use as it doesn't degrade at high temps
  33. Jack Szostak (1983)
    • Constructed yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) w/telomeres & a centromere
    • argued in a paper that 1st organisms were HETEROTROPHIC vs AUTOTROPHIC
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molecular biology history.txt
mol bio
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