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The information that has been stored and can be retrieved. Also the persistence of learning over time.
Define: Sensory Input
What is being processed, "sensed" - is briefly "stored in our sensory memory.
Define: Sensory Memory
Momentary neurological storage of the sensor input.
Define: Automatic Processing
Where information is encoded without awareness.
Define: Effortful Processing
Where attention and consciousness is required to encode information.
Define: Short-Term Memory
Where one can become aware of their encoded inforamtion, but without any additional processing this information will be forgotten in about 20-30 seconds.
Define: Long-Term Memory
A more permanent memory, out of our awareness.
Getting information out of long-term memory.
Define: Perspective Memory
Remembering essential tasks to do.
Define: Proactive Interference
The disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information
Define: Retroactive Interference
The disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information
Define: Positive Interference
When the effect of prior learning can assist in the learning of new information.
In psychoanalytic therapy, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories.
Define: Misinformation Effect
Incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event.
Define: Source Amnesia
Attribting to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined.
Define: Imagination Inflation
Misinformation effect that applies to memories that never happened.
List and define the two types of sensory memory.
- Iconic Memory: visual information that less for less than one second.
- Echoic Memory: Auditory information that can last for several seconds.
List the five types of sensory information
List and define the three types of automatic processing.
- Space: The context in which the information is encountered.
- Time: When the information was encountered.
- Frequency: How often information has been encountered.
List and define the three types of effortful processing.
- Rehearsal: Repetitive processing of information to keep it in our awareness or ot encode it for storage.
- Elaboration: Associate meaning to an item to be remembered.
- Chunking: Organize information into more memorable groupings.
List and define the two types of long term memory.
- Explicit Memory: requires conscious retrieval
- Implicit Memory: memory for skills and habits
List and define the two types of explicit memory.
- Senatic Memory: General knowledge and facts
- Episodic Memory: Specific, personal events
List and define the two main retrieval processes.
- Recall: remembering something without any retrieval cues.
- Recognition: identifying something that has been learned.
List the three stages of memory
List and define the three sins of forgetting.
- Absent-Mindedness: Inattention to details leads to encoding failure.
- Transience: Storage decay over time.
- Blocking: Inaccesibility of stored information.
List and define the three sins of distortion.
- Misattribution: Confusing the source of information
- Suggestibility: The lingering effects of misinformation.
- Bias: Brlief-colored recollections.
List and define the sin of intrusion.
Persistence: Unwanted memories.
List the seven points psychologists agree on regarding memoreis and abused children.
- 1) Injustice happens.
- 2) Incest and other sexual abuse happens.
- 3) Forgetting happens.
- 4) Recovered memoeries are commonplace.
- 5) Memories of things happening before age three are unreliable.
- 6) Memories "recovered" under hypnosis or the influence of drugs are especially unreliable.
- 7) Memories, whether real or false, can be emotionally upsetting.
List the seven strategies to improve memory.
- 1) Study repeatedly to boost long-term recall.
- 2) Spend more time rehearsing or actively thinking about the material.
- 3) Make the material personally meaningful.
- 4) To remember a list of unfamiliar items, use mnemonic devices.
- 5) Refresh your memory by activating retrieval cues.
- 6) Minimize interference.
- 7) Test your own knowledge, both to rehearse it and to help determine what you do not yet know.
Encoding can happen automatically (____________) and with effort (_____________).
Out of awareness; with awareness
Memory is a _______ process.
Memories are usually ______, but sometimes ______.
How strong the __________ is will determine how strong the _________ of memory is.
It takes certain _____________ to retrieve a memory.
________________ came up with seven ways our memory fails us that he calls the ___________________.
David Schacter; Seven Sins of Memory
The ability to _______ information for the purposes of long-term memory degrades as an _________, versus when it is at its prime in a _______________.
encode; older adult; younger person
_________________ found through an experiment that the process of forgetting is in a curve called the ________. The process occurs ________ in the initial days, and then ___________. A possible
explanation is a gradual ________ of the physical ______________.
Hermann Ebbinghaus; Forgetting Curve; rapidly; levels off; failing; memory trace
____________ proposed that people ______ memories in order to protect their __________ and minimize ____________.
Sigmund Freud; regress; self-concept; anxiety
____________ can have a great impact on someone’s ____________ of an incident.
Word cues; depiction
The _______ of a memory tends to be the frailest part of it.
Children are most suspectible to ______________.
false memory inplants
People with vivid imaginations are more likely than others to experience a(n) ____________.
Speed-Reading complex material yields little long-term retention because it inhibits ________.
Source amnesia is also called _____________.
Source amnesia, along with its misinformation effect, is at the heart of many _____________.
Explicit memory is processed in the area of the brain known as __________________.
One area of the brain that implicit memory is processed is the ______________.
Fill in the chart below for Encoding failure. Not all parts will be filled.
From left to right:
External events; Blank; Sensory Memory; Attention; Working/Short-Term Memory; Encoding; Long Term Memory
From top to bottom:
Blank; Encoding failure leads to forgetting
Fill in the chart below for retrieval failure. Not all parts will be filled.
From left to right:
External Events; Blank; Sensory Memory; Attention; Working/Short-Term Memory; Encoding; Long-Term Memory
From Right To Left:
From Top To Bottom:
Blank; Retrieval Failure Leads to Forgetting