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What is the active ingredient in willow bark, and with what drug does it share side effects?
What analgesic type works only in the CNS?
What is it about acetaminophens that reduce their systemic side effects?
Because they only work in the CNS, they do not inhibit normal Cox-1 prostaglandin functions that help protect the stomach, kidneys, and fetal heart development.
Which analgesic binds irreversibly to platelets? What effect does this have?
- Salycilates (asprin)
- This prevents platelet aggregation, which can help reduce blood clotting & sticking in the vascular system.
What is a potentially serious side effect of acetaminophen overdose?
Which types of non-opioid analgesics have high protein binding? Which do not?
All but acetaminophen have high protein binding.
How are nonopioid analgesics excreted?
Some active drug is excreted renally (through the kidneys).
Why should the dose of NSAIDs possibly be decreased for older adults?
They have an increased risk for perforated gastric ulcers with NSAIDs.
What is the antidote for acetaminophen overdose?
When celecoxib or asprin combined with alcohol, it can cause damage to what organ?
When acetominaphen is combined with alcohol, it can cause damage to what organ?
What is a potential side effect of long-term therapy with NSAIDs or acetominaphen? What organ can they wear down over time?
- Analgesic nephropathy
Why would you need to drink a full glass of water with an NSAID?
To help it dissolve, enter the blood more readily, and work faster.
What are the constituitive effects of Cox-1 enzymes?
- 1. Protect the GI mucosa by decreasing the secretion of stomach acid, stomach pepcin, & increasing mucus production.
- 2. Protect the kidneys/promote adequate function by increasing excretion of Na+ and water, or increase secretion of free water.
- 3. In utero, they maintain patency of fetal ductus arteriosus after 30 weeks (little hole in aortic branch). 4. Regulate platelet aggregation; keep them from becoming too sticky
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