Helminth Test

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moses1424
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109932
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Helminth Test
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2011-10-19 19:21:37
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Helminth Test
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Helminth Test
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  1. FORMED SAMPLES specimen collection.
    CYSTS/HELMINTHS MOST LIKELY FOUND
  2. LIQUID/SOFT SAMPLES
    MOTILE TROPHOZOITE FORMS WILL MOST LIKELY BE FOUND

    do not store in refrig (cold kills trophs)
  3. Transportation time limit
    1 hour
  4. Formed sample
    May be refrigerated for up to one week.
  5. Unformed sample
    • May not refrigerate
    • Must process imediately or preserve.
  6. 2 vial preservation method for unformed or liquid samples
    • 1 vial 10% formalin (FORMALDEHYDE)
    • another of polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA)
  7. Alternative Single Vial Method
    •SINGLE VIAL WITH MERTHIOLATE IODINE FORMALIN (MIF)
  8. Tube type for collection of malaria sample?
    • EDTA
    • COLLECT PRIOR TO PAROXSYM
    • MAKE THICK & THIN BLOOD SMEARS
  9. EDTA WHOLE BLOOD FOR TRYPANOSOMA
    • COLLECT DURING FEVER
    • MAKE SMEARS FROM BUFFY COAT
  10. LEISHMANIA specimen collection
    • EDTA
    • COLLECT ANYTIME; PREPARE REGULAR SMEARS
  11. PARAGONIMUS collection site?
    Sputum
  12. TRICHINELLA collection site?
    Muscle
  13. TRYPANOSOMAS, TOXOPLASMA & NAEGLERIA collection site?
    CSF
  14. TRICHOMONAS collection site?
    Vaginal
  15. SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM collection site?
    TRICHOMONAS & PINWORM (CONTAMINATION)
    Urine
  16. CHINESE LIVER FLUKE
    CLONORCHIS SINENSIS
  17. ORIENTAL LUNG FLUKE
    PARAGONIMUS WESTERMANI
  18. LARGE INTESTINAL FLUKE
    FASCIOLOPSIS BUSKI
  19. ORIENTAL BLADDER FLUKE
    SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM
  20. ORIENTAL BLOOD FLUKE
    S. JAPONICUM
  21. MANSON’S BLOOD FLUKE
    S. MANSONI
  22. Platyhelminths
    • (Flatworms)
    • Cestodes (Tape Worms)
    • Trematodes (Flukes)
  23. NEMATHELMINTHS
    Nematodes (round worms)
  24. SHEEP LIVER FLUKE
    • FASCIOLA HEPATICA
    • Accidental Parasite
    • Only Fluke Found Worldwide
  25. Epidemiology of flukes
    • All require intermediate host not native to the US.
    • All except Fasciola Hepatica found Far East Middle East, Africa, and India.
  26. HERMAPHRODITIC (MALE & FEMALE)
    FLAT, ELONGATED, LEAF-SHAPED
    NOT SEGMENTED LIKE TAPEWORMS
    HAVE NO CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
    HAVE ORAL SUCKING DISKS FOR ATTACHMENT
    Flukes
  27. Not Poerculated
    Have lateral or Terminal Spines
    Shistisoma
  28. CLONORCHIS SINENSIS mode of transmission
    Raw or undercooked Fish
  29. PARAGONIMUS WESTERMANI mode of transmission.
    Raw or undercooked crabs and crayfish
  30. FASCIOLOPSIS BUSKI and FASCIOLA HEPATICA mode of transmission.
    Undercooked water vegitation
  31. SCHISTOSOMA :
    HAEMATOBIUM
    MANSONI
    JAPONICUM
    Mode of transmission.
    • PENETRATION OF SKIN
    • OF FEET & LOWER LIMBS
  32. SMALL,OBLONG &
    ROUND BOTTOM
    –30 x 15 MICRONS
    OPERCULATED
    PRONOUNCED SHOULDERS
    AROUND OPENING
    TERMINAL KNOB NOT
    USUALLY VISIBLE
    CLONORCHIS SINENSIS
  33. •GOOSE EGG SHAPE WITH 1 WIDER END
    –85 x 55 MICRONS
    •OPERCULATED ON WIDER END
    SHOULDERS AROUND OPERCULUM NOT USUALLY VISIBLE (PRONOUNCED)
    PARAGONIMUS WESTERMANI
  34. •OVA DISTINGUISHABLE BY SIZE ONLY
    GOOSE EGG (ELLIPTICAL) SHAPE
    –150 x 80 – 90 MICRONS
    •OPERCULATED WITH SHOULDERS FLUSH THIN OUTER MEMBRANE
    FASCIOLA HEPATICA
  35. •OVA DISTINGUISHABLE BY SIZE ONLY
    •GOOSE EGG (ELLIPTICAL) SHAPE
    –150 x 80 – 90 MICRONS
    OPERCULATED WITH SHOULDERS FLUSH
    THIN OUTER MEMBRANE
    FASCIOLOPSIS BUSKI
  36. •LARGE SIZE –180 x 80 MICRONS
    •GOOSE EGG SHAPE –ELLIPTICAL SHAPE
    •THIN, COLORLESS OUTER MEMBRANE
    •PRONOUNCED LATERAL SPINE
    •NOT OPERCULATED
    SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI
  37. •LARGE SIZE –160 x 80 MICRONS
    •ELLIPTICAL SHAPE
    •THIN, COLORLESS OUTER MEMBRANE
    •NOT OPERCULATED
    •PRONOUNCED TERMINAL SPINE
    SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM
  38. •MODERATE SIZE –80 x 60 MICRONS
    •ROUND, BUT NOT SPHERICAL SHAPE
    •MAY HAVE YELLOW-BROWN COLOR
    •INCONSPICUOUS LATERAL SPINE
    NOT OPERCULATED

    SCHISTOSOMA JAPONICUM
  39. DIPHYLLOBOTHRIUM LATUM common name?
    Fish Tapeworm
  40. TAENIA SOLIUM/TAENIA SAGINATA common name?
    Pork/Beef Tapeworm
  41. HYMENOLEPSIS NANA Common Name?
    Dwarf Tapeworm
  42. HYMENOLEPSIS DIMINUTA common name?
    Rat Tapeworm
  43. DIPYLIDIUM CANINUM common name?
    Dog/Cat Tapeworm
  44. Three Parts of a tape worm are...
    • Scolex (Head): functions for attachment only.
    • Neck: New growth occurs from the neck.
    • Proglottids (segments): Each proglottid contain both sex organs. Diagnostic for each tapeworm.
  45. DIPHYLLOBOTHRIUM LATUM mode of transmission.
    Raw or undercooked freshwater fish.
  46. TAENIA SAGINATA; TAENIA SOLIUM mode of transmission.
    Raw or undercooked beef or pork.
  47. HYMENOLEPSIS NANA; HYMENOLEPSIS DIMINUTA mode of transmission.
    Contaminated food or Water
  48. HYMENOLEPSIS
    DIMINUTA; DIPYLIDIUM CANINUM mode of transmission?
    • Rat, cat, or dog flea.
    • Humans are accidental hosts.
  49. •MOD SIZE (75 x 45)
    •OVAL TO GOOSE EGG SHAPE
    •OPERCULATED
    •TERMINAL KNOB NOT USUALLY VISIBLE
    NOT HEXACANTH EMBRYO
    DIPHYLLOBOTRIUM LATUM OVA
  50. •SMALL SIZE
    –35 -45 MICRONS
    •ROUND
    •THICK, RADIALLY STRIATED OUTER RIM
    •USUALLY BROWN COLOR
    •HEXACANTH EMBRYO WITH 3 PRS OF HOOKLETS
    TAENIA SPECIES OVA
  51. •50 x 30 MICRONS
    •OVAL SHAPE; USUALLY CLEAR
    •THIN, COLORLESS OUTER MEMBRANE
    •HEXACANT EMBRYO WITH 3 PRS OF HOOKLETS
    •H. NANA HAS POLAR FILAMENTS
    • HYMENOLEPSIS
    • NANA OVA
  52. •50 x 30 MICRONS
    •OVAL SHAPE; USUALLY CLEAR
    •THIN, COLORLESS OUTER MEMBRANE
    •HEXACANT EMBRYO WITH 3 PRS OF HOOKLETS
    •H. DIMINUTA DOES NOT HAVE POLAR FILAMENTS
    HYMENOLEPSIS DIMINUTA OVA
  53. •ROUND SHAPE; USUALLY CLEAR
    •THIN, COLORLESS OUTER MEMBRANE
    •HEXACANTH EMBRYO W/ 3 PRS OF HOOKLETS
    •VERY SIMILAR TO H. DIMINUTA
    •EGG PACKET IS DIAGNOSTIC
    DIPYLIDIUM CANINUM
  54. Most Common Helminth infection in the US?
    Pinworms (ENTEROBIUS VERMICULARIS)
  55. ENTEROBIUS VERMICULARIS common name?
    Pinworm
  56. TRICHURIS TRICHURIA common name?
    WHIPWORM
  57. ASCARIS LUMBRICOIDES common name?
    GIANT INTESTINAL ROUNDWORM
  58. TRICHINELLA SPIRALIS common name?
    TRICHINA WORM
  59. STRONGYLOIDES STERCORALIS common name?
    THREAD WORM
  60. NECATUR AMERICANUS common name?
    NEW WORLD HOOKWORM
  61. ANCYLOSTOMA DUODENALE common name?
    OLD WORLD HOOKWORM
  62. WUCHERERIA BANCROFTI
    BANCROFT’S FILARIA
  63. ENTEROBIUS VERMICULARIS mode of transmission?
    • •MODE OF TRANSMISSION
    • FEMALE LAYS EGGS (OVA) ON ANAL FOLDS
    • INFECTIVE EGGS INGESTED (HAND-TO-MOUTH)
    • EGGS BECOME INFECTIVE WITHIN HOURS OF LAYING
  64. THIN WALLED (DOUBLE) OUTERSHELL
    COLORLESS OUTERSHELL
    FLATTENDED ON ONE SIDE
    55 MICRONS X 25 MICRONS
    MAY SEE DEVELOPING LARVAE INSIDE
    ENTEROBIUS VERMICULARIS
  65. TRICHURIS TRICHIURA mode of transmission?
    • INGESTION OF EGGS IN INFECTED SOIL
    • INGESTION OF FOOD CONTAMINATED WITH INFECTED SOIL
  66. •BARREL SHAPED OVA
    •50 X 25
    •BIPOLAR HYALINE (CLEAR) PLUGS
    •SMOOTH, THICK OUTER SHELL; YELLOW BROWN COLOR
    EMBRYO IS UNDEVELOPED
    TRICHURIS TRICHIURA
  67. ASCARIS LUMBRICOIDES mode of transmission?
    • –INGESTION OF INFECTED SOIL OR FOOD/WATER CONTAMINATED
    • WITH INFECTED SOIL
    • –ADULTS INHABIT SMALL INTESTINE FOLLOWING LARVAL
    • MIGRATION THROUGH LIVER & LUNGS
  68. FERTILIZED EGG
    SMALLER & ROUNDER
    55 MICRONS x 40 MICRONS
    COARSE, MAMILLATED OUTER COVERING
    THICK SHELL
    YELLOW BROWN COLOR
    NOT OPERCULATED
    ASCARIS LUMBRICOIDES
  69. •NONFERTILIZED EGG
    –LARGER & ELONGATED –90 x 40 MICRONS
    COARSE, MAMMILLATED OUTER COVERING
    THICK SHELL
    YELLOW BROWN COLOR
    NOT OPERCULATED
    NO EMBRYO PRESENT
    ASCARIS LUMBRICOIDES
  70. TRICHINELLA SPIRALIS mode of transmission?
    • INGESTION OF LARVAE IN UNCOOKED OR UNDERCOOKED PORK OR BEAR MEAT
    • ADULTS LIVE IN SMALL INTESTINES FOLLOWING LARVAL MIGRATION
    • LARVAE ENCYST IN STRIATED MUSCLE TISSUE
  71. •COILED LARVAE ENCYSTED IN STRIATED MUSCLE
    •BECOMES CALCIFIED OVER TIME
    •EVIDENCE OF INFLAMMATION
    TRICHINELLA SPIRALIS
  72. HOOKWORM mode of transmission?
    • –EGGS SHED IN FECES ---> MATURE IN SOIL & HATCH
    • INFECTIVE LARVAE PENETRATE SKIN OF FEET OF HUMAN HOST
    • LARVAE MIGRATE TO SMALL INTESTINES OF HUMAN HOST TO MATURE
  73. •OBLONG SHAPE
    –50 x 30 MICRONS
    •THIN, SMOOTH, COLORLESS SHELL
    –OUTER SHELL NOT ALWAYS VISIBLE
    •DEVELOPING EMBRYO IS 2 - 8 CELL DIVISION
    HOOKWORM OVA
  74. STRONGYLOIDES STERCORALIS mode of transmission?
    • –RHABDITIFORM LARVAE
    • SHED IN FECES ---> MATURES IN SOIL TO INFECTIVE STAGE
    • –INFECTIVE LARVAE PENETRATES SKIN OF FEET OF HUMAN HOST
    • –LARVAE MIGRATE TO INTESTINES (THROUGH LUNGS) OF HUMAN HOST
    • –ADULTS INHABIT SMALL INTESTINE OF HUMAN HOST
  75. LARVAL FORM
    275 x 16 MICRONS
    SHORT BUCCAL CAVITY EQUAL TO 1/2 WIDTH OF BODY
    NOTCHED TAIL
    HOURGLASS SHAPED ESOPHAGUS
    FOUND IN FRESH FECAL SAMPLES
    •SHORT BUCCAL CAVITY < 1/2 WIDTH OF BODY
    •BULBOUS ESOPHAGUS
    •STUBBY TAIL
    STRONGYLOIDES STERCORALIS
  76. WUCHERERIA BANCROFTI mode of transmission?
    • •MODE OF TRANSMISSION
    • –INHABIT TROPICAL CLIMATES
    • –MOSQUITO BITE
    • •CULEX MOSQUITO
    • •ANOPHELES MOSQUITO
    • –ADULT INHABITS LYMPHATIC VESSELS OF LOWER EXTREMITIES
    • •POOLING OF FLUID IN LOWER EXTREMITIES CAUSING EDEMA
    • ASSOCIATED WITH “ELEPHANTITIS”
  77. MICROFILARIA
    PALE PINK CYTOPLASM CONTAINING MANY PURPLE NUCLEI
    NUCLEI DO NOT EXTEND INTO THE TAIL
    POSSESSES A SHEATH (THIN, TRANSLUCENT, OUTER COVERING)
    WUCHERERIA BANCROFTI

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