Lecture 4: The Autonomic Nervous System

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  1. What do the effectors of the Somatic Nervous System effect?
    Skeletal Muscles
  2. What do the effectors of the Autonomic Nervous System effect?
    • Cardiac Muscle
    • Smooth Muscle
    • Glands
  3. Describe the Efferent Pathway for the Somatic Nervous System
    A thick heavily myelinated somatic motor fiber makes up each pathway from the CNS (Central Nervous System) to the muscle.
  4. Describe the Efferent Pathway for the Autonomic Nervous System.
    • ANS pathway is a two-neuron chain
    • 1. Preganglionic neuron ( in CNS) has a thin lightly myelinated preganglionic axon.

    2. Ganglionic neuron in autonomic ganglion has an unmyelinated postganglionic axon that extends to the effector organ.
  5. What neurotransmitter(s) does the Somatic Nervous System release?
    All somatic motor neurons release Acetylcholine (Ach)
  6. What neurotransmitter(s) does the Autonomic Nervous System release?
    Preganglionic fibers release Acetylcholine (Ach)

    Posganglionic fibers release Neuroepinepherine (NE) and Acetylcholine (Ach) at effectors.
  7. What neurotransmitter is released in the postganglionic Parasympatheic fiber?
  8. What neurotransmitter is released in the postganglionic Sympathetic fiber?
    Neuroepinepheine (NE)

    • *unless the fiber is supplying:
    • -Sweat glands
    • - Some blood vessels that supply the skeletal
    • muscles
    • Then it secretes Ach
  9. What effect do the Somatic Neurotransmitter(s) have on effectors?
    Somatic Neurotransmitters (Ach) are always STIMULATORY
  10. What effect do the Autonomic Neurotransmitter(s) have on effectors?
    Effect is either Stimulatory or Inhibitory, depending on the types of receptors.
  11. What promotes maintenance activity and conserves body energy?
    Parasympathetic division of the ANS
  12. What is at work when a person relaxes & reads after a meal(rest and digest) ?
    the Parasympathetic division of the ANS
  13. What do your Blood flow, Gastrointestinal tract, and Pupils do under your parasympathetic division?
    • -Blood pressure, heartrate, and respiratory rates are low
    • -Gastrointestinal tract activity is high
    • - Pupils are constricted and lenses are accommodated for close vision
  14. What mobilizes the body during activity, and is also known as the fight or flight system?
    The Symathetic divison of the ANS
  15. What promotes adjustments during exercise, or when threatened?
    the Sympatheic division of the ANS.
  16. How do your blood flow, Bronchioles, and Liver act under the influence of the sympathetic division of the ANS?
    • - Blood flow is shunted to the skeletal muscles and heart
    • -Bronchioles dilate
    • -Liver releases glucose
  17. What fibers release the neurotransmitter ACh?
    Cholinergic fibers
  18. Where do Cholinergic fibers release ACh?
    • -All ANS preganglionic axons
    • -All parasympathetic postganglionic axons
  19. What type of fiber release the neurotransmitter NE?
    Adrenergic fibers
  20. Where do Adrenergic fibers release NE?
    • -Most sympathetic postganglionic axons
    • -*Exceptions: Sympathetic postganglionic fibers secrete ACh at sweat glands and some blood vessels in skeletal muscles
  21. What is the name of the receptors for Acetylcholine? (ACh)
  22. What is the name of the receptors for Neroepinephrine? (NE)
  23. What two types of Cholinergic receptors bind ACh?
    • Nicotinic
    • Muscarinic
  24. What two types of Adrenergic receptors bind Neroepinephrine? (NE)
    • Alpha (α)
    • Betta (β)
  25. Where are Nicotinic Receptors found?
    • Motor end plates of skeletal muscles cells
    • all gaglionic neurons (sympathetic & parasympathetic)
    • Hormone-producing cells of the adrenal medulla
  26. What is the effect of ACh at nicotinic receptors?
    Always stimulatory
  27. Where are Muscarinic Receptors found?
    All effector cells stimulated by postganglionic cholinergic fibers
  28. What is the effect of ACh at muscarinic receptors?
    • can either be inhibitory or excitatory
    • depends on the receptor type of the target organ
  29. β 1 influences what?
  30. β 2 influences what?
    Broncules & Uterus
  31. β 3 infuluences what?
    adipose tissue
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Lecture 4: The Autonomic Nervous System
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