Immunology Exam 2

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Immunology Exam 2
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2011-10-19 00:41:12
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  1. Effector B Cells with Ab in membrane
    Memory Cells (Plasma Cells do not have these)
  2. Primary Lyphatic Tissue
    • Antigen Independent Differentiation
    • Bone Marrow
    • Thymus
    • Bursa
  3. Secondary Lymphatic Tissue
    • Antigen dependent differentiation
    • Lymph Nodes
    • Spleen
    • MALT, SALT, etc.
  4. Function of Epithelial Cells in Thymus
    • Support
    • Produce cytokines to advance differentiation
  5. Thymocytes
    Lymphocytes in the thymus
  6. Extravasation
    Process of leaving vascular system and entering thymus
  7. Epithelial vs Macrophage Function in Thymus
    • Epithelial- Self identity is established (positive selection)
    • Macrophages- Ensure don't trigger immune response with self (negative selection)
  8. Dendritic Cells react with antigen here and present it to T cell
    Lymph Nodes
  9. Three Areas of Lymph Nodes
    • Cortex - B Cell Region
    • Paracortex- T Cell Region (mostly Th)
    • Medulla- Plasma Cell Region
  10. Follicles
    • Assemblages of lymphocytes in the cortex of lymph nodes.
    • Mostly naive but can interact with antigen here
  11. Germinal Center
    • Where lymphocytes interact in lymph node. When B cell is activated by Th cell, a follicle will surround the germinal center
    • Another site of selection (FDC participates in selection process)
  12. Centrocytes
    • New name for cell that has gone through the germinal center. Will eventually become a memory cell.
    • No germinal center means no memory cells
  13. Spleen (PALS)
    Majority of spleen is RBCs, but also sheathe of WBC called Pari Arteriolar Lymphoid Sheaths
  14. Layer of Cells in PALS
    • Macrophage (APC)
    • B Cells
    • T Cells
    • Blood Vessel
  15. How naive T Helper Cells Enter Lyph Nodes
    From blood stream (not lymphatic)
  16. Post Cappillary Venule
    • Lines blood vessel
    • Tall epithelial layer (HEV) with unique cell surface components where cells can leave vascular system and enter lyphoid tissue
  17. Selective Receptor Development
    During margination (leukocytes leaving circulation), the organ tells the epithelial cells to express certain receptors to allow specific cells to pass
  18. Diapedesis
    • Process of squeezing through
    • Chemokines regulate receptors
  19. 4 Categories of Cellular Adhesion Molecules (CAMs)
    • Mucin-like CAM
    • Integrins
    • (didn't note other two)
  20. Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency
    • Occurs when CD11/CD8 integrins are defective
    • These two are components of ICAMs
    • Leukocytes can,t get out so no inflammation
  21. Phagocyte Migration
    • Due to breach of non-specific barriers
    • Manufacture CAMs and receptors on nearby epithelium
    • Occur due to vasoactive factors
  22. Sources of Vasoactive Factors
    Injured tissue: membrane manufactures leukotriene (signal) which stimulates Mast Cells to produce vasoactive factors

    Bacterial membranes: Trigger macrophages (also mast cells) to release vasoactive factors
  23. Compliment acting as vasoactive factor
    Complement acts as a chemotactic factor, drawing leukocytes up concentration gradient
  24. TLR4
    Toll Like Receptor that binds LPS
  25. Lymphocytes with TLR
    Natural Killer Cells
  26. Receptor Mediated Phagocytosis
    Phagocyte usually has to bind multiple receptors to pathogen. Then engulf it in phagosome
  27. C3b and CR1
    C3b binds to general component of bacteria and is then received by CR1 on phagocyte
  28. Mechanism of Kill
    • Phagosomal Killing-
    • Granuloma Formation
  29. Phagosomal Killing
    • Protein Kinase C on phagosomic membrane
    • NADPH oxidase- toxic chemical (neutrophils make so much that they kill themselves)
    • Myeloperoxidase- only found in neutrophils
  30. Granuloma Formation
    Immune system surrounds pathogen with phagocytes
  31. Complement + Antibody = Bacteria Death
    • Antibody= heat stable
    • Complement= heat labile
  32. Classical Pathway
    • C1 is activated when encounters Ag-Ab complex
    • Leads to formation of MAC
  33. Alternative Pathway
    • Very fragile pathway
    • Involves many steps
    • Evolutionarily the oldest pathway
    • Leads to C3b without antibody (true innate)
  34. Lectin Pathway
    • Manos Binding Lectin (MBL) is soluble and binds to bacteria. Serves as an opsinin.
    • Doesn't require antibody (true innate)
    • Leads to same pathway as classical, but different starting units
  35. Membrane Attack Complex
    • C5 - C9
    • Best used for lysing Gram Negative
    • C8 Drill
    • C9 Case for drill
  36. C5b Convertase
    Comes in 2 forms. One for classical pathway and one for alternative pathway
  37. Many Checks of Alternative Pathway
    • H Factor competes with B factor (inhibitory factor)
    • Factor I + Factor H = attachment site for C3b which makes iC3b (innactive)
    • CR1 binds Factor 1 which competes for the binding site on C3b
  38. Alternative Pathway Result
    Usually just opsinin. Difficult to get to C5 convertase
  39. Other roles of C3b
    • Attach to Fc receptor to clean up Ab-Ag complexes
    • Bind receptors on RBC and go to spleen
    • Attach to virus attachment sites to prevent access
    • *Needed to reach C5
  40. Mast Cells Interacting with Complement Factors
    C3a reacts to cause increase in chemotactic and vasoactive factors
  41. C Reactive Proteins (CRP)
    • Produced by liver in response to IL-1 and IL-6 from macrophage.
    • Serves as an opsinin, but binds C1qrs to activate it
  42. Four Classical Inflammation Signs
    Redness
    Vasoactive Factors contract smooth muscle to redirect blood flow to area
  43. Four Classical Inflammation Signs
    Heat
    • Extra blood
    • Metabolic activity
    • Bacteria have narrow tolerance to heat
    • If doesn't work locally, will develop fever
  44. Four Classical Inflammation Signs
    Swelling
    Vasoactive factors cause epithelium to loosen so that liquid plasma can enter
  45. Four Classical Inflammation Signs
    Pain
    Vasoactive factors, but more importantly kinin cascade
  46. Defensins
    • Antimicrobial peptide
    • One of the most ancient immune defenses
  47. Origin of Alternate Pathway
    • Arose in invertebrates
    • Echinoderms
  48. Coelomacites
    • Wandering phagocytic cells in echinoderms
    • Give rise to C3 analogous protein & Factor B analogous protein
    • Produce IL1 analog in presence of pathogen (self proliferation)
  49. IL1
    Macrophages release this to trigger proliferation of T cells
  50. Sponge
    Amoeboid immunocytes
  51. Tunicates
    Have MHC like proteins
  52. Vertebrates
    • Only ones to have true lymphocytes
    • Lampreys were first
    • Sharks were first to show T and B cell differentiation (first to have thymus and spleen)
  53. Evolution of Bone Marrow
    Hematopoietic Stem Cells are sensitive to UV, so better to encase in bone
  54. Mammals and Birds
    • Lymph Nodes
    • MALT, SALT
  55. Classic Ig Bivalent Structure
    • 2 Identical Heavy Chains
    • 2 Identical Light Chains
  56. N terminus vs C terminus
    • N terminus is on Fab
    • C terminus is on Fc
  57. Genetics of H chain and L chain
    • L chain duplicated twice next to each other
    • H chain duplicated four times
  58. 4 Basic Effector Activities
    • Neutralization of pathogen
    • Complement Activation
    • Opsinization
    • Ab-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity (ADCC Reaction)
  59. Constant Regions of H Chain
    • 7
    • IgM
    • igD
    • igG (2)
    • IgE
    • IgA (2)
  60. Amino Acids of Hinge Region
    Glycine and Lysine
  61. Papain
    Cuts hinge region into 3 sections
  62. Mecaptoethanol
    Breaks disulfide bonds (4 regions)
  63. Pepsin
    Cuts away Fc at disulfide bridge. Retains bivalent structure to bind 2 antigens
  64. Light Chain Constant Regions
    • Kappa (dominant form)
    • Lambda
  65. Hypervariable Regions
    Vs
    Framework Regions
    • Hypervariable is antigen detecting
    • Also complementarity determining region (CDR)
  66. N--CDR1, CDR2, CDR3--C
    CDR3 is most variable
  67. Affinity vs Avidity
    Affinity- Strength of association between antibody and antigen

    Avidity- Attachment to several epitopes of antigen
  68. Cross Reactivity
    • Some antigens occur on classes of microorganisms
    • An antibody can attack any of these that it recognizes
  69. B Cell mIg
    • Doesn't have signal transduction machinery
    • borrow from Iga and IgB
  70. IgM and IgA
    • IgM can have 1 or 5 antibodies
    • IgA can have 1, 2, 3, or 4 antibodies (usually 2)
  71. J Chain
    Binds Fc Regions to polymerize antibodies
  72. Isotype vs Allotype vs Idiotype
    • Isotype- constant region
    • Allotype- constant region
    • Idiotype- variable region
  73. IgA and Secretion
    • Dimeric IgA binds secretory receptor
    • Enclosed in phagosome
    • Moves across
    • Leaves as Secretory IgA (SIgA)
  74. Poly Ig Receptor (pIgR)
    • Presence of J chain brings them together
    • Linkage is broken within phagosome
  75. Complement activating Ig
    IgG and IgM
  76. Difference between membrane bound Ig and secreted Ig
    Secreted has hydrophilic end, membrane bound has hydrophobic end that anchors it to membrane
  77. IL-1-like cytokine in starfish mobilizes this cell in response to bacteria
    Coelomocyte
  78. Congenitally athymic
    DiGeorge Syndrome
  79. Periarteriolar Lymphoid Sheath
    White Pulp
  80. Found in the cortex of the thymus
    CD4+CD8+cell
  81. Portal for naive lymphocytes to peripheral compartment organs
    HEV
  82. Defensive agent secreted by macrophage
    Lysozyme
  83. NADPH Phagosome Oxidase Deficiency
    Chronic Granulomatosus Disease
  84. Integrin Deficiency
    Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency
  85. Systemic Inflammatory Cyokine-Induced
    Fever
  86. Composed of proteolytic digestion products of C1qrs activity
    C3 Convertase
  87. Urease secretion is an evasive tool against this defense
    Stomach Acid
  88. Found in the medulla of the bursa of fabricus
    B cells
  89. Endproduct of all three complement pathways
    MAC
  90. Peripheral compartment organ focused on IgA secretory responses
    Peyer's Patch
  91. Legionnarie's Disease bacterium inhibits its formation
    Phagolysosome

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