Psychology Chapter 7

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Psychology Chapter 7
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2011-10-18 16:47:03
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Learning and Conditioning
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  1. A relatively permanent change in behavior (or behavioral portential) due to experience.
    Learning
  2. An approach to psychology that emphasizes the study of observable behavior and the role of the environment as a determinant of behavior.
    behaviorism
  3. A basic kind of of learning that involves associations between environmental stimuli and the organism's responses.
    conditioning
  4. Th classical-conditioning term for a stimulus that elicits a reflexive response in the absence of learning.
    unconditioned stimulus (US)
  5. The classical-conditioned term for a reflexive response elicited by a stimulus in the absence of learning.
    unconditioned response (UR)
  6. The classical-conditioning term of an initially neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a conditioned response after being associated with an unconditioned stimulus.
    conditioned stimulus (CS)
  7. The classical-conditioning term for a response that is elicited by a conditioned stimulus; it occurs after the conditioned stimulus; it occurs after the conditioned stimulus is associated with an unconditioned stimulus.
    conditioned response (CR)
  8. The process by which a previously neutral stimulus acquires the capacity to elicit a response through association with a stimulus that already elicits a similar or related response. Also called Pavlovian or respondent conditioning.
    classical conditioning
  9. The weakening and eventual disappearance of learned response; in classical conditioning, it occurs when the conditioned stimulus is no longer paired with the unconditioned stimulus.
    extinction
  10. The reapperance of a learned response afterits apparent extinction.
    spontaneous recovery
  11. In classical conditioning, a procedure in which a neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus through association wiht an already established conditioned stimulus.
    higher-order conditioning
  12. After conditioning, the tendency to respond to a stimulus that resembles one involved in the original conditioning; in classical conditioning, it occurs when a stimulus that resembles the CS elicits the CR.
    stimulus generalization
  13. The tendency to respond differently to two or more similar stimuli; in classical conditioning, it occurs when a stimulus similar to the CS fails to evoke the CR.
    stimulus discrimination
  14. In classical conditioning, the process of pairing a conditioned stimulus wiht a stimulus that elicits a response that is incopatible with an unwanted conditioned response.
    counterconditioning
  15. The process by which a response becomes more likely to occur or less so, depending on its consequences.
    operant conditioning
  16. The process by which a stimulus or event strengthens or increases the probability of the response that it follows.
    reinforcement
  17. The process by which a stimulus or event weakens or reduces the probability of the response that it follows.
    punishment
  18. A stimulus that is inherently reinforcing, typically satisfying a physiological need; and example food.
    primary reinforcer
  19. a stimulus that is inherently punishing; and example is electric shock.
    primary punisher
  20. A stimulus that has acquired reinforcing properties through association with other reinforcers
    secondary reinforcer
  21. A stimulus that has acquired punishing properties through association with other punishers.
    secondary punisher
  22. A reinforcement procedure in which a response is followed by the presentation of, or increase inintensity of, a reinforcing stimulus, as a result, the response becomes stronger or more likely to occur.
    positive reinforcement
  23. A reinforcement procedure in which a response is followed by the removal, delay, or decrease in intensity of an unpleasant stimulus; as a result, the response becoes stronger or more likely to occurs.
    negative reinforcement
  24. The weakening and eventual disapperance of a learned response; in operant conditioning, it occurs when a response is no linger followed by a reinforcer.
    extinction
  25. In operant conditioning, the tendency for a response that has been reinforced (or punished) in the presence of one stimulus to occur (or be suppressed) in the presence of other similar stimuli.
    stimulus generalization
  26. In operant conditioning, the tendency of a response to occur in the presence of one stimulus but not in the presence of other, similar stimuli that differ from it on some dimesion.
    stimulus discrimination
  27. A stimulus that signals when a particlar response is likely to be folowed by a certain type of consequence.
    discriminative stimulus
  28. A reinforcement schedule in which a particular response is always reinforced.
    continuous reinforcement
  29. A reinforcement schedule in which a particular response is sometimes but not always reinforced.
    intermittent (partial) shcedule of reinforcement
  30. An operant-conditioning procedure in which successive approximantions of a desired response are reinforced.
    shaping
  31. In the operant-conditioning procedure of shaping, behaviors that are ordered in terms of increasing similartiy or closeness to the desired response.
    successive approximations
  32. During opernant learning, the tendency for an organism to revert to instinctive behavior.
    instinctive drift
  33. The application of operant-conditioning techniques to teach new responses or to reduce or eliminate maldaptive or problematic behavior; also called applied behavior analysis.
    behavior modification
  34. Reinforcers that are not inherently related to the activity being reinforced.
    extrinsic reinforcers
  35. Reinforcers that are inherently related to the activity being reinforced.
    intrinsic reinforcers
  36. A form of learning that is not immediatlely expressed in an overt response; it occurs without obvious reinforcement.
    latent learning
  37. Theories that emphasize how behavior is learned and maintained through observation and imtation of others, positive consequences, and cognitive processes such as plans, expectations, and beliefs.
    social-cognitive theories
  38. A process in which and individual learns new responses by observing the behavior of another (a model) rather than through direct experience; sometimes called vicarious conditioning.
    observational learning

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