Gen Bio

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Gen Bio
2011-10-18 17:11:33

life saver
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  1. Carbohydrates are _____ compouds that have a carbonyl group and several to many ____ groups
    Organic; hydroxyl
  2. What is the name of a simple sugar?
  3. What is the name of a complex sugar?
  4. How are different types of monosaccharides distinguished?
    • (1) the location of their carbonyl groups
    • (2) number of carbon atoms they have
    • (3) orientation of their hydroxyl groups in the linear chain or ring form
  5. Monosaccharides are _________ that polymerize via _______
    monomers ; condensation reaction
  6. How are monosaccharides in polysaccharides joined?
    glycosidic linkages
  7. The most common polysaccharide in organisms today are
    startch , glycogen, cellulose, and chitin
  8. Peptidoglycen is an abundent polysaccharide with _______ chains of amino acids
  9. Carbohydrates have diverse functions in ____
  10. Cellulose, chitin, and peptidoglycan function in
  11. The __________ on cell - surface gylcoproteins can function as specific signposts or ID tags
  12. The plasma membran
    seperates life from nonlife
  13. Fats are composed of three ____ ____ that are linked to a three - carbon molecule called _______
    Fatty acids ; glycerol
  14. Molecules that contain only carbon and hydrogen
  15. Lipids are characterized by their
  16. Glycerol and fatty - acid molecules are linked by
    ester linkage
  17. _______ consists of a glycerol that is linked to a phosphate group and to either two chains of isoprene or two fatty acids
  18. Compounds that contain by hydrophobic and hydrophillic elements
  19. Instead of disolving in water, phosholipids form one of two types of structures which are
    • Micelles -create wheels
    • Lipid Bilayers - two sheets of phospholipid align
  20. Phospholipids are more stable as a
  21. Permeability
    the tendency to allow a given substance to pass across it
  22. Hydrocarbon chains without double bonds are said to be ___________. Hydrocarbon chains with double bonds are said to be ___________.
    Saturated ; Unsaturated
  23. Bond saturation and hydrocarbon chain length change ______ and ______.
    Membrane fluidity, permeability
  24. Glycogen
    A polymer of glucose, the primary energy storage molecule in animals
  25. Liquid triacylglycerols
  26. Which is more permeable?
    - membrane made out of lipids with short, kinked, unsaturated fatty - acid tails
    - bilayers made of lipids with long, straight, saturated fatty - acid tails
    bilayers made of lipids with long, straight, saturated fatty - acid tails
  27. T/F - adding cholesterol to liposomes dramatically reduces the permeability of the lipid bilayer
  28. What determines how quickly molecules move within and across membranes?
    Temperature and the strucutre of hydrocarbon tails
  29. Entropy is the measure of..
    the randomness or disorder in a system
  30. in a closed system, entropy always decreases (T/F)
    False, it always increases
  31. Solutes
    the dissolved molecules and ions
  32. Osmosis
    the moevement of water
  33. Hypertonic
    Outside solution is hypertonic to the inside (more 'salt' on outside, water exits cell)
  34. Hypotonic
    Outside solution is hypotonic to inside (water enters cell, causes it to burst)
  35. Isotonic
    isotonic solution (no change)
  36. Proteins that are amphipathic can be insterted into lipid bilayers (T/F)
  37. Which do we use today?
    * Fluid - Mosaic Model
    * Sandwich Model
    Fluid - Mosaic
  38. What is the difference between integral membrane protein and peripheral membrane proteins?
    • Integral Membrane Protein - face interior and exterior surfaces
    • Peripheral Membrane Protein - found only on one side of the membrane
  39. What are the three classes of transport proteins that affect membrane permeability?
    Channels, transporters, and pumps
  40. The most prominent structure inside a bacterial cell is the
  41. Chromsomes contain
  42. Bacterial chromosomes are found in the localized area of the cell called that
  43. Plasmids
    contain genes but are independent from the main chromosome
  44. Ribosomes contain
    RNA and proteins
  45. Cytoskeleton
    New discovery; protein filaments that help maintain cell shape
  46. When water enters the cell via osmosis and makes the cell's volume expand, the pressure is resisted by
    the cell wall
  47. Lipids the contain carbohydrate groups
  48. Eukaryotic cells are much ______ than bacteria and archaea
  49. What are two key advantages to compartmentalization in eukaryotic cells
    • *incompatible chemical reactions can be seperated
    • *chemical reactions become more efficient
  50. Nucleus
    • Holds genetic informaiton, assembles ribosome subunits, and give structural support
    • -enclosed by a double memebrane (nuclear envelope)
    • -the nuclear lamina stiffens the structure and maintains shape
  51. Ribosomes
    the site of protein synthesis
  52. Rough ER
    • protein synthesis and processing
    • -knobys on ER are ribosomes
  53. Smooth ER
    Contains enzymes that catalyze reactions involving lipids
  54. Golgi Apparatus
    products of the rough ER pass through here, consist of flattened sacs called cisternae
  55. Peroxisomes
    centers for oxidation reactions
  56. Lysosomes
    in animal cells;; digestive centers, catalyze hydrolysis reactions
  57. Autophagy
    damaged cells are digested by lysosome and recycled into the cytosol
  58. Phagocytosis
    plasma membrane engulfs small cell and releases small molecules into cytosol
  59. Vacuoles
    Store water
  60. Mitochondria
    Produces ATP
  61. Chloroplast
    producation of ATP and sugars via photosynthesis
  62. Cell Wall
    in fungi, algae and plants ;; provides support and protection
  63. Cytoskeleton
    structural support, movement of material and in some species, the whole cell
  64. Plasma Membrane
    maintains intracellular environment
  65. The Secretory Pathway
    • (1) Ribosome deposits Nascent protein in ER
    • (2) Protein exits Rough ER
    • (3)Proteing enters Golgi cis face for processing
    • (4) Protein exits Golgi trans face
  66. Centrioles are composed of...
  67. What is Classic Organization
  68. What are the cytoskeleton's three main components
    • (1) Vacuoles
    • (2) Chloroplast
    • (3) Cell Walls
  69. Cytokinesis
    cell division in animal cells
  70. Cytoplasmic Streaming
    the directed flow of cytosol and organelles around plant cells;; common in large cells
  71. Cell Crawling
    groups of actin filaments grow and create bulges in the plasma membrane that extend and move the cell
  72. How are cells connected?`
    extracellular matrix
  73. List two facts about collagen
    • 1) Most abundent molecule
    • 2) only bonded molecule in Animal Kingdom
  74. What are the three types of junctions/briefly describe?
    Tight junction, anchoring junction and communication junction
  75. Catabolic pathways
    • Cell Respiration --> (aerobic)
    • Fermentation --> (anaerobic)
  76. What do all organisms use to extract energy from organic molecules
    Cellular respiration
  77. What does ATP consist of
    3 phosphate groups, ribose and adenine
  78. when is energy released from ATP
    when it is hydrolyzed
  79. what are the two mechanisms for synthesis
    • (1) Substrate level - phosphorylation { transfer phosphate directly to ADP (glycolysis) }
    • (2) Oxidative Phosporylation { ATP synthase uses energy from proton gradient (electron transport and chemiosmosis) }
  80. Glycolysis
    • inpute - 1 glucose, 2 ATP, 2 NaD +
    • energy yield - 2 NADH, 4 ATP
    • net yield - 2 pyruvate (3C ; substrate), 2 NADH (electron carriers) , 2 ATP
  81. Citric Acid Cycle
    • - occurs in the mitocondrial matrix
    • ** Acetyl CoA + Oxaloacetate --> citrate
    • *** Citrate rearranges and decarboxylizes
    • **** Regeneration of oxaloacetate occurs
  82. Electron Transport Chain & Chemiosmosis
    • -occurs in the cristae membrane
    • - the final electron acceptor is oxygen which keeps the chain moving (escalator)
  83. the fate of pyruvate depends on what?
    O2 availability
  84. Anaerobic Respiration
    • Methanogens - CO2 is reduced to CH (methane)
    • Sulfur Bacterial - inorganic sulfacte (SO4) is reduced to hydrogen sulfate (H2S)
  85. Fermentation
    • Uses organic molecules as final electron acceptors
    • Glycolysis 'shunts' --> fermentation in absence of O2
  86. Aerobic Respiration
    C6H12O6 +6O2 --> 6CO2 +6H2O + energy
  87. Cellular Energy Harvest
    • #Dozens of Redox Reactions
    • #Numerous electron acceptors
    • #High - Energy electrons enter reactions and loose muc of their energy
  88. Pyruvate Oxidation
    • -occurs in the mitochondria of eukaryotes
    • - occurs in the plasma membrane of prokaryotes
    • - For each pyruvate molecule (X2) ;;
    • * input - 1 pyruvate (3C) , 1 Co - enzyme A (CoA)
    • * net yield - 1 CO2, 1 NADH, 1 Acetyl - CoA (substrate for citric acid cycle)
  89. Citric Acid Cycle
    • For each Acetly CoA
    • - yield ;; 2 CO2, 3NAD+ reduced to 3 NADH, 1 FAD reduced to FADH2, 1 ATP
  90. One Glucose molecule oxidized to
    6 CO2 , 4 ATP, 10 NADH, 2 FADH2

    *** 10 NADH and 2 FADH2 proceed to the electron transport chain ***
  91. Electron Transport Chain
    - Embeded in IMM
  92. Chemiosmosis
    • - proton gradient in the intermembrane space
    • - diffuse down the gradient
    • - protons re-enter the matrix through ATP synthase
  93. Energy yield of respiration
    ~ 29 ATP per glucose for Eukaryotes
  94. What are the position difference of Alpha - Glucose and Beta - Glucose?
    • Alpha - above ring
    • Beta - below ring
  95. Step of sodium - potasium pump
    (1) unbound protein (2) sodium binding (3) shap change (4) release (5) unbound protein (6) potasssium binding (7) shape change (8) release