Zoology

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WesFil
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109987
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Zoology
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2011-10-19 11:28:09
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Zoology
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Zoology Test 1
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  1. protoplasmic grade of organization
    ameba
  2. an example of tissue organ grade of organization
    flatworm
  3. as animals increase in size
    the body length increases more slowly than volume
  4. blood is an example of
    connective tissue
  5. an enterocoelous animal has
    a true coelom
  6. flatworms have
    tube within a tube body plan
  7. vertebrates have
    • bilateral symmetry
    • eucoelomate body plan
    • tube within a tube body plan
  8. true metamerism found only in Annelida, Arthropoda and__________
    Chordata
  9. dirrerentiation of a head end in bilaterally symmetrical animals is called__________
    cephalization
  10. similar cells grouped together to perform a common function___________
    tissues
  11. the study of tissues is ___________
    histology
  12. contractile elements within a muscle fiber
    myrofibrils
  13. fibrous protein and the most abundant protein in the animal kingdom
    collegan
  14. non-nervous cells that insulate neurons and serve various supportive functions
    myelin sheath
  15. the back side of an animal
    dorsal
  16. the type of body cavity that represents a persistant bloastocoel
    psuedocoelom
  17. the eucoelomate bilateria are those animals that possess a true
    coelom
  18. divides an animal into right and left halves
    sagital
  19. the chest region or region of the body supported by the front legs
    pectorial
  20. the grouping of single cells into a definite patern or layers representing the level of organization
    cell tissue
  21. In animal symmetry _______ parts are farther from the middle of the body than some point of reference
    distala
  22. the metazoan cell, unlike the protozoan cell is capable of an _________ existence
    dependent
  23. the term __________ literally means within the cells
    intracellular
  24. list the level of organismal complexity and give an example
    • protoplasmic - ameba
    • celluar - volvox
    • cell tissue - jelly fish
    • tissue organ - flatworm
    • organ system - nervous system
  25. list four major advancements in animal architecture
    • tube within a tube
    • multicellular
    • bilateral movement
    • head unit
  26. what are the four major tissue types found in the body and their function
    • muscular - body movement
    • nervous - helps the body detect pain
    • connective - bonds
    • epitheilium - protection; covering
  27. The man who developed the present system of classigication
    Linneaus
  28. According to the binomal system of nomenclature, the Aedes in Aedes vexans refers to the ______
    genus
  29. relevean terms to the cladistic systematics
    • synapomorphy
    • cladogram
    • monophyly
  30. Distinguish between phylogenetic tree from cladogram
    structures denotes real lineages that occured in the evolutionary past
  31. characters used to contruct a cladogram come from the study of
    • comparitve morphology
    • comparitive cytology
    • comparitive biochemistry
  32. a taxon is parphyletic if it
    includes the most recent common ancestor of all members of the goup and some but not all of its descendants
  33. in evolutionary taxonomy, the most important criterion that determines the taxonomic rank of a taxon is
    the breadth of its adaptive zone
  34. The family evel of classification of anthropoid primates violates the principals of cladistic taxonomy because
    the Pongidae if not monophyletic
  35. To a cladist, the statement that birds (a monophyletic group) evolved from reptiles (a paraphyletic group) constitutes
    a meaningless statement that birds evolved from something they are not
  36. Is possession of a degfining organismal feature an important criterion for species recognition
    no
  37. character similarity that results from common ancestry
    homology
  38. the ancestral/derived relationships among different states of a taxonomic character
    polarity
  39. a taxon containing the most recent common ancestor of a group of organisms and all of its descendants
    monophyletic
  40. the method used to determine which state is ancestral and which are derived
    outgroup comparisons
  41. a derived character shared by members of a clade is
    synamorph
  42. branching diagram that presents the nested hierarchial pattern of clades within a clade
    cladogram
  43. a branching diagram whose branches represent real lineages that occured in the evolutionary past
    phylogenetic tree
  44. a characterisitc reaction and mutual relationship between environment and organism
    adaptive zone
  45. a single lineage of ancestor-descendant population which maintains its identity from other such lineages and which has its own evoltionary tendencies and fate
    evolutionary species concept
  46. an irreducible (basal) grouping of organisms diagnosably distinct from other such groupings and has parental pattern of ancestry and descent
    phylogenetic species concept
  47. Traditional evolutionary taxonomist
    • phylogenetic tree
    • does not accept polyphyletic
    • monophyletic
    • evolutionary past from the first organism
  48. Cladist
    • cladogram
    • monophyletic
    • sister group
    • most recent common ancestor
  49. Microtubiules have _________ arrangement in the axoneme
    nine peripheral pairs of microtubules plus one central pair
  50. at the base of every flagellum is a
    kinetosome
  51. long thin pseudopodia suppoted by axial rods of microtubules are
    axopodia
  52. the function of the contractile vacuole in protozoa is
    water balance
  53. reproduction in most protozoa is primarily by
    asexual
  54. When meiosis occurs during the first divisions after sexual fertilization it is called ________
    zygotic meiosis
  55. the protozoan trypanosoma causes human
    African sleeping sickness
  56. An example of sarcodine protozoan is
    Amoeba
  57. The great pyramids of Egypt are made from stone formed from fossils of
    foraminiferans
  58. during conjugation
    binary fission occurs
  59. (True or False) Ameboid movement, like the movement of flagella and cilia, may involve tiny filaments moving past each other
    True
  60. (True or False) Reticuopodia are long, thin pseupodia supported by axial rods
    False
  61. (True of False) Protozoa have a wide variety of food gathering habits
    True
  62. (True or False) Most of the nitrogenous wastes in protozoa are eliminated by diffusion through the cell membrane
    True
  63. (True or False) Gametic meiosis occurs just after zygote formation
    False
  64. (True or False) Protozoa have specialized organelles for exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide
    False
  65. (True or False) A well known example of a colonial flagellate is euglena
    False
  66. (True or False) The most complex life cycles among the protozoa are found in the parasitic sporozoans
    True
  67. (True or False) Endosomes are nucleoli that remain as discrete bodies during mitosis
    True
  68. In many protozoa, food is digested within an organelle called a ___________
    phagosome
  69. The 9+2 tube of microtubes in a flagellum or cilium is called a __________
    axoneme
  70. After phagocytosis, the food particle is held in a food vacuole called a
    phagocyte
  71. Amebic dysentery is caused by the protozoan species _________
    entoemeba
  72. A peculiar form of reproduction found in ciliates is __________
    Conjugation
  73. Multiple fission or _______ is a type of asexual reproduction found in plasmodium
    schizogony
  74. Multiple fission associated with union of gametes is called ________
    sporogony
  75. Meiosis that occurs during the divisions after fertilizations is known as ______ meiosis
    zygotic meiosis
  76. Pseudopodial movement
    • 1. Actin subunits are bound to actin bindin proteins to keep them from assembling
    • 2. upon stimulation, hydrostatic force carries the subunits through a weakened gel to the hyaline cap. The actin subunits are freed fom the regulatroy proteins by lipids in the cell membrane
    • 3. Subunits quickly assemble into filaments and upon interaction with ABP from gel like ectoplasm
    • 4. At the trailing edge, calcium ions activate ABP that releases actin filaments from the gel loosening the network enough that myosin molecules can pull it
    • 5. Subunits pass through the tube of ectoplasms to be reused

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