Clinical Laboratory Technician (CLT) / Medical Laboratory Technician (MLT) programs
Education programs Baccalaureate Degree
Clinical Laboratory Science (CLS) / Medical Technology (MT) programs
There two general types of CLS programs:
university-based and hospital-based
the institution that provides the clinical education also grants the baccalaureate degree.
the hospital provides the clinical education and partners with an academic institution to provide the baccalaureate degree.
What are the three different ways the CLS/MT programs are structured?
2+2 programs, integrated programs and plus 1 program.
2+2 Program what year to the CLS courses and rotations start
Junior then senior year clinicals
Integrated programs CLS begins
at the start it is 4 years incorporated
Plus 1 program CLS rotations begin
3 years of pre-requiste and the senior year 1 year of rotations
4+1 is that like the 3 +1
Yes only that the student already has a BA and will be awarded a certificate
Accreditation is defined
a process of external peer review, an agency grants public recognition to a program of study or institution that meets established qualifications and educational standards
Does NAACLS accredits and approves programs
What is the difference between an approval or an accreditation
Approvals do not have site visits by NAACLS
benefits of accreditation
Instructors and administrators to participate in self- evaluation, program puts out competent individuals and a mechanism to meet goals and objectives
NAACLS is an autonomous organization sponsored by the two founding organizations
Accreditation Process several steps
Application, self-study, paper review , site visit, NASCLS review, decision
6-10 to prepare document and it shows program complies with standards
NAACLS reviews self-study report
CLS certification means
individual’s qualifications are recognized by a non-governmental organization or agency.
purpose of certification
is to assure the public and employers that individuals are competent to practice in a particular profession.
recertification is offered by
NCA as a means of CE
What is the instructional sequence
Goals, objectives, learning activites and evaluation
Goals should describe what the learner will be able to do
Once goals have been identified, objectives developed to help the learner take specific steps to attainment of those goals.
Objectives and goals are similar but differ?
an objective is more specific than a goal.
objective is a statement that describes
what the learner will be able to do after successfully completing a particular educational experience.
The new employee will understand all the laboratory safety policies.
After reading the safety manual, the employee will state the requirements for disposal of biohazardous materials.
After reading the safety manual, the employee will respond to a chemical spill using the proper procedures.
Why Use Objectives?
The major reason for using objectives is to facilitate clear communication between the learner and the instructor.
Objectives can benefit learners by
Guidelines for studying, learners to evaluate own progress, facilitating communication with the instructor
Are objectives required?
Yes NAACLS requires them for each course
The major criticisms of objectives are
written at lower cognitive levels, limit instructors flexibility, to time consuming to write.
Writing Objectives: General Guidelines
terminal behavior, condition and standards
what is terminal behavior
involves deciding what the learner must be able to do after completing the instructional activity in order to demonstrate mastery of the objective.
examples of terminal behavior
Identify the antibody specificity, Calculate the mean and standard deviation, List the components of Complement
what are conditions
The instructor should indicate what the learner will be provided or what will be denied.
examples of conditions
Given a calculator, the student will..., Using a procedure manual, the student will, Given the frequencies of blood group antigens, the student will
What are standards
This indicates how well the learner must perform to be considered acceptable, if not stated understood 100%
examples of standards
within 30 minutes, with 90 percent accuracy, within + 2 standard deviations
Example of a complete objective:
Given a Neubauer counting chamber, the student will perform manual white blood cell counts on four cerebrospinal fluid samples with 90 percent accuracy.
A key to writing good objectives is the choice of the appropriate
The verb is to ?
to describe the performance, or the terminal behavior that the learner must exhibit
In writing objectives, verbs should be chosen to clearly convey?
instructor expectations so the instructor and learner can identify behavior that will be accepted as evidence the learner has successfully mastered the objective.
examples of action verbs
Calculate Repeat, Diagram Select, Identify State, List Underline
a way to fix an error in writing an objective
The emphasis should be on the what the learner will do rather than on what the instructor will do.
a way to fix an error in writing an objective
The focus of objectives should be on the learning outcome rather than on the learning process.
CLASSIFICATION OF OBJECTIVES 3 domains
Cognitive, psychomotor, and affective
Cognitive Domain includes
includes intellectual learning outcomes such as the recall, comprehension , and the processes of analysis, synthesis, and evaluation.
The simplified taxonomic levels in the cognitive domain are:
Recall, application and problem solving
Cognitive domain recall
Remembering learned information.
example of recall
At the conclusion of the clinical rotation in the histocompatibility laboratory, the student will list the steps in the procedure used to perform crossmatches for HLA compatibility prior to transplantation.
Cognitive domain application
Understanding information and applying it to other material or new situations.
example of application
Given the results of an HLA antibody screening, the student will calculate the PRA (panel reactive antibody).
Cognitive domain problem solving
Analyzing, reorganizing, and synthesizing information. Making decisions and judgments based on information.
example of problem solving
Given the results of HLA-A, -B, DQ and -DR antigen typings for a patient and family members, the student will determine the haplotypes of all family members and the best donor for a bone marrow transplant.
Affective Domain 3 simplified levels
Awareness, valuing, commitment
Psychomotor domain 3 simplified levels
Readiness, proficiency and adaptation
The lecture method represents
the most popular learning activity
Lecture method advantages:
most efficient in disseminating large quantities of info to any size group, instructor can summarize info from various sources, instructor can highlight topics in the textbook
lecture method limitations
learner is passive, 80% of what is learned forgotten in 2 months
types of learning activities
Lecture, Case studies, Simulations and role playing, Cooperative learning, Problem-based learning, Computer-based instruction, Student laboratory
Lecture method organization
Introduction, Body, Conclusion
lecture method delivery should be
Enthusiastic, keep a pace, minimize gestures, and maintain eye contact
Case study uses
higher cognitive domains and promotes problem solving.
simulations and role playing uses
affective and higher cognitive domains
Types of Tests
Placement, formative and summative
Assess pre-requisite skills and knowledge
Cover a limited amount of information
Assess mastery of instructional material
Written, oral, computerized, practical exams
Achievement is based on performance of others
Assesses mastery by achieving predetermined minimal competencies
Pitfalls of Tests
Assesses lower level cognitive skills, Does not match objectives , Grading is subjective
Assessing Higher Cognitive Skills
Want the learner to apply, analyze, evaluate, provide data ask for analysis
Types of test items
Objective and subjective
Multiple choice, true and false, and matching
Short answer and essay
Multiple choice advantages
Easy to make and greater sampling
Multiple choice disadvantages
Difficlt to create and tend to focus on recall
What is the stem?
is a direct question or incomplete statement
The stem should be qualified using?
"of the following” if a comparison is required
Multiple choice guidelines
The responses should be of similar length, complexity, and format, correct answers tend to be longer
The words "always," "never," "all," or "none" should be
The responses "all of the above" and "none of the above" should be used
as little as possible, if at all.
Multiple choice guidelines regarding amounts
All responses should be expressed in the same units, When the responses are number values, they should be arranged increasing or decreasing order.
Fast to take
One way to minimize guessing on true and false?
the students can be required to correct the false statements
Matching Test advantage
useful for testing a large amount of information
Matching test disadvantage
Subjective Items: Short Answer and essay advantages
easy to make, useful for assessing higher cognitive skills
short answer and essay disadvantages
difficult to grade, limited sampling, subjective grading
To evaluate essay and short answer items with the minimum amount of subjectivity
Develop answers and criteria for each question prior to grading the test, Assign points for each criteria, Read all the students' answers to one question at a time, Grade the test without knowing the student's identity.
Test and Item Analysis
Used to determine the effectiveness of the items
Types of test analysis
distribution of grades, mean
test items analyzed
Pass rate, distribution of responses
Ranges from +1 to -1
What is the Discrimination Index
Indicates how well the item discriminated between good and poor performers
What does a negative number mean in the discrimination index
more poor performers got the item correct than good performers
Test Reliability is affected by
Quality of item, Number of items, objectivity of grading, Students’ physical and emotional state
test reliability ranges
How well a test measures what it was designed to measure, content and criterion
Evaluating Test Effectiveness
test relevant and balanced, an appropriate length, grading objective, discriminate between high and low achieving learners, difficult enough to be challenging but not unfair, test reliable, test valid