Test #2 Government Chapters: 6-10

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13corkey13
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109993
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Test #2 Government Chapters: 6-10
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2011-10-18 18:55:17
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Government Terms
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Key terms Chapters 6-10
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  1. Interest Group
    An interest group formed for the purpose of working for the "public good." Examples of public-interest groups are the American Civil Liberties Union and Common Cause.
  2. Purposive Incentive
    A reason to join an interest group--- satisfaction resulting from working for a cuase in which one believes.
  3. Solidary Incentive
    A reason to join an interest group---pleasure in associating with like-minded individuals.
  4. Material Incentive
    Practical benefits from joining an interest group, such as discounts, subscriptions, or group insurance.
  5. Free Rider Problem
    The difficulty that exists when individuals can enjoy the outcome of an interest group's efforts without having to contribute, such as by becoming members of the group.
  6. Pluralist Theory
    A theory that views politics as a contest among various interest goups---at all levels of government---to gain benefits for their members.
  7. Public-Interest Group
    An interest group formed for the purpose of working for the "public good." Examples of public-interest groups are the American Civil Liberties Union and Common Cause.
  8. Trade Organization
    An association formed by members of a particular industry, such as the oil industry or the trucking industry, to develop common standards and goals for the industry. Trade organizations, as interest groups, lobby government for legislation or regulations that specifically benefit their groups.
  9. Labor Force
    All of the people over the age of sixteen who are working or actively looking for jobs.
  10. Right-to-Work Laws
    Laws that ban unions from collecting dues or other fees from workers that they represent but who have not actually joined the union.
  11. Direct Technique
    Any method used by an interest group to interact with government officials directly to further the group's goals. Examples: Lobbying, Providing Election Support.
  12. Lobbying
    All of the attempts by orginazations or by individuals to influence the passage, defeat, or contents of legislation or to influence the administrative decisions of government.
  13. Lobbyist
    An individual who handles a particular interest groups lobbying efforts.
  14. Political Action Committee (PAC)
    A committee that is established by a corporation, labor union, or special interest group to raise funds and make contributions on the establishing organization's behalf.
  15. Indirect Technique
    Any method used by interest groups to influence government officials through third parties, such as voters. Examples: Shaping public opinion, rating syesems, issue ads and 527's.
  16. Rating System
    A system by which a particular interest group evaluates (rates) the performace of legislators based on how often the legislators have voted with the group's position on particular issues.
  17. Independent Expenditure
    an expenditure for activities that are independent from (not coordinated with) those of a political candidate or party.
  18. Political Party
    A group of individuals who organize to win elections, operate the government and determine policy.
  19. Realignment
    A process in which the popular support for the relative strength of the parties shift and the parties are reestablished with different coalitions of supporters.
  20. Dealignment
    Among voters, a growing detachment from both major political parties.
  21. Primary
    A preliminary election held for the purpose of choosing a party's final candidate.
  22. Minority Party
    The political party that has fewer members in the legislature than the opposing party.
  23. Majority Party
    The political party that has more members in the legislature than the opposing party.
  24. Coalition
    An alliance of individuals or groups with a variety of interests and opinions who join together to support all or part of a political party's platform.
  25. Electorate
    All of the citizens eligible to vote in a given election.
  26. Party Identifier
    A person who identifies himself or herself as being a supporter of a particular political party.
  27. Party Activist
    A party member who helps to oragnize and oversee pary functions and planning during and between campaigns.
  28. Solidarity
    Mutual agreement among the members of a particular group.
  29. Patronage
    A system of rewarding the party faithful and workers with government jobs or contracts.
  30. Ward
    A local unit of a political party's organization, consisting of a division or district within a city.
  31. Precinct
    A political district within a city, such as a block or a neighborhood or a rural portion of a county, the smallest voting district at the local level.
  32. National Convention
    The meetings held by each major party every four years to select presidental and vice-presidential candidates, write a party platform, and conduct other party business.
  33. Party Ticket
    A list of political party's candidates for various offices in national elections, the party ticket consists of the presidential and vice-presidential candidates.
  34. Party Platform
    The document drawn up by each party at its national convention that outlines the policies and positions of the party.
  35. National Party Committee
    The political party leaders who direct party business during the four years between the national party conventions, organize the next national convention, and plan how to obtain a party victory in the next presidential elections.
  36. National Party Chairperson
    An individual who serves as a political party's administrative head at the national level and directs the work of the party's national committe.
  37. Two-Party System
    A political system in which two strong and established parties compete for political office.
  38. Third Party
    in the United States, any party other than one of the two major parties. (Republicans and Democrats)
  39. Public Opinion
    The views of the citizenry about politics, public issues, and public policies; a complex collection of opinions held by many people on issues in the public arena.
  40. Political Socialization
    The learning process through which most people acquire their political attitudes, opinions, beliefs, and knowledge.
  41. Agents of Political Socialization
    People and institutions that influence the political views of others. Example: Family, Friends, School, Church
  42. Media
    Newspapers, magazines, television, radio, the Internet, and any other printed or electronic means of communication.
  43. Peer Group
    Associates, often close in age to one another, may include friends, classmates, co-workers, club members, or religious group members. Peer group influence is a significant factor in the political socialization process.
  44. Public Opinion Poll
    A numercal survey of the public's opinion on a particular topic at a particular moment.
  45. Sample
    In the context of opinion polling, a group of people selected to represent the population being studied.
  46. Straw Poll
    A nonscientific poll; a poll in which there is no way to ensure that the opinons expressed are representative of the larger population.
  47. Biased Sample
    A poll sample that does not accurately represent the population.
  48. Random Sample
    In the context of opinion polling, a sample in which each person within the entire population being polled has an equal chance of being chosen.
  49. Sampling Error
    In the context of opinion polling, the difference between what the sample results show and what the true results would have been had everybody in the relevant population been interviewed.
  50. Push Poll
    A campaign tactic used to feed false or misleading information to potential voters, under the guise of taking an opinion poll, with the intent to "push" voters away from one candidate and toward another.
  51. Literacy Test
    A test given to voters to ensure that they could read and write and thus evaluate politcal information, a technique used in many southern states to restrict African Amercian participation in elections.
  52. Poll Tax
    A fee of several dollars that had to be paid before a person could vote; a device used in some southern states to prevent African Americans from voting.
  53. Grandfather Clause
    A clause in a state law that had the effect of restricting the franchise (voting rights) to those whose ancestors had voted before the 1860's; one of the techniques used in the South to prevent African Americans from exercising their right to vote.
  54. White Primary
    A primary election in which African Americans were prohibited from voting. The practice was banned by the Supreme Court in 1944.
  55. Voting Age Population
    The number of people residing in the United States who are at least eighteen years old.
  56. Vote-Eligible Population
    The number of people who are actually eligible to vote in an American election.
  57. Gender Gap
    The difference between the percentage of votes cast for a particular candidate by women and the percentage of voters cast for the same candidate by men.
  58. Solid South
    A term used to describe the tendency of the southern states to vote Democrat after the Civil War.
  59. Vital Center
    The center of the political spectrum; those who hold moderate political views. The center is vital because without it, it may be difficult, if not impossible, to reach the compromises that are necessary to a political systems's continuity.
  60. General Election
    A regularly scheduled election to choose the U.S. president, vice president, and senators and representatives in Congress. General elections are held in even-numbered years on the Tuesday after the first Monday in November.
  61. Special Election
    An election that is held at the state of local level when the voters must decide an issue before the next general election or when vacancies occur by reason of death or resignation.
  62. Australian Ballot
    A secret ballot that is prepared, distributed, and counted by government officials at public expense; used by all states in the United States since 1888.
  63. Party-Column Ballot
    A ballot (also called the Indiana ballot) that lists all of the party's candidates under the party labor. Voters can vote for all party's candidates for local, state and national offices by making a single "X" or pulling a single lever.
  64. Office-Block Ballot
    A ballot (also called the Massachusetts ballot) that lists together all of the candidates for each office.
  65. Poll Watcher
    A representative from one of the political parties who is allowed to monitor a polling place to make sure that election is run fairly to avoid fraud.
  66. Elector
    A member of the electoral college
  67. Electoral College
    The group of electors who are selected by the voters in each state to elect officially the president and vice president. The number of electors in each state is equal to the number of that state's representatives in both chambers of Congress.
  68. Winner-Take-Al System
    A system in which the candidate who receives the most votes wins. In contrast, proportional systems allocate voters to multiple winners.
  69. Caucus
    A meeting held to choose political candidates or delegates.
  70. Nominating Convention
    An official meeting of a political party to choose its candidates. Nominating conventions at the state and local levels also select delegates to represent the citizens of their geographic areas at a higher-level party convention.
  71. Delegate
    A person selected to represent the people of one geographic area at a party convention.
  72. Primary Election
    An election in which voters choose the candidates of their party, who will then run the general election.
  73. Direct Primary
    An election held within each of the two major parties-Democratic and Republican-to choose the party's candidates for the general election. Voters choose the candidate directly, rather than through delegates.
  74. Closed Primary
    A primary in which only party members can vote to choose that party's candidates.
  75. Open Primary
    A primary in which voters can vote for a party's candidates regardless of whether they belong to the party.
  76. Credentials Committee
    A committee of each national political party that evaluates the claims of national party convention delegates to be the legitimate representatives of their states.
  77. Political Consultant
    A professional political adviser who, for a fee, work on an area of a caididate's campaign,. Political consultants include campaign, managers, pollsters, media advisers, and "get out the vote" organizers.
  78. Campaign Strategy
    The comprehensive plan developed by a candidate and his or her advisers for winning an election. The strategy includes the candidate's position on issues, slogan, advertising plan, press events, personal appearances, and other aspects of the campaign.
  79. Loophole
    A legitimate way of evading a certain legal requirement.
  80. Soft Money
    Campaign contributions not regulated by federal law, such as some contributions that are made to political parties instead of to particular candidates.
  81. Independent Expenditure
    An expenditure for activities that are independent from (not coordianted with) those of political candidate or a political party.
  82. Mass Media
    Communications channels, such as newspapers and radio and television broadcasts, through which people can communicate to large audiences.
  83. Print Media
    Communication channels that consist of printed materials, such as newspapers and magazines.
  84. Electronic Media
    Communication channels that involve elecetronic transmissions, such as radio, televison and the internet.
  85. Soundbite
    A televised comment, lasting for only a few seconds, that captures a though or a perspective and has an immediate impact on the viewers. Ronald Reagan is mostly known for this.
  86. Political Advertising
    Advertising undertaken by or on behalf of a political candidate to familiarize voters with the candidate and his or her views on campaign issues, also advertising for or against policy issues.
  87. Negative Political Advertising
    Political advertising undertaken for the purpose of discrediting an opposing candidate in the eyes of the voters. Attack ads are one from of negative political advertising.
  88. Personal Attack Ad
    A negative political advertisement that attacks the character of an opposing candidate.
  89. Issue Ad
    A political advertisement that focuses on a particular issue. Issue ads can be used to support or attack a candidate.
  90. Managed News Coverage
    News coverage that is manipulated (managed) by a campaign manager or political consultant to gain media exposure for a political candidate.
  91. Spin Doctor
    A political candidate's press adviser, who tries to convince reporters to give a story or event concerning the candidate a particular "spin" (inerpretation, or slant)
  92. Spin
    A reporters slant on, or interpretation of , a particular event or action.
  93. Citizen Journalism
    The collection, analysis, and dissemination of information online by independent journalists, scholars, politicians, and the general citizenry.
  94. Podcasting
    The distribution of audio or video files to a personal computer or a mobile device, such as an iPod.

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