ch 15/16 Iahcsmm

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  1. bioburden
    • number of microorganisms on a contaminated object
    • also called bioload, or microbial load
  2. flash sterilizer
    a sterilizer that uses higher temps for shorter exposure times to handle emergency sterilization of dropped instruments
  3. instrument washer sterilizer (IWS)
    combination units that wash and sterilize instruments to insure the safety of processing personnel
  4. flash sterilization
    the process of sterilizing an item that is not packaged
  5. terminal sterilization
    the process of sterilizing an item that is packaged
  6. saturated steam
    steam that contains the maximum amount of water vapor
  7. gauge pressure (steam sterilizer)
    • absolute pressure (-) atmospheric pressure (14.7 psi at sea level)
    • also called overpressure
  8. absolute pressure (steam sterilizer)
    gauge pressure (psi) (machine produced) + atmosphere pressure (14.7 psi at sea level)
  9. superheated(steam)
    • "dry" steam
    • the condition of steam when its temp is too high relative to its pressure in a steam table
  10. conduction
    a heat transfer method in which heat is absorbed by an item's exterior surface, and passed inward to the next layer
  11. convection
    the process of heat transfer by the circulation of currents from one area to another
  12. process indicators
    devices intended for use with individual untis to demonstrate that the unit has been exposed to the sterilization process, and to distinguish between processed and unprocessed units
  13. chemical indicators (CIs)
    systems that reveal a change in one or more predefined process parameters on the basis of a chemical or physical change that results from exposure to a process
  14. load control number
    label information on sterilization packages, trays, or containers that identifies the sterilizer, cycle run, and date of sterilization
  15. julian date
    number of days that have elapsed since jan 1st
  16. spore
    microorganism with a thick wall surrounding it that enables the organism to survive in adverse conditions including high temps
  17. validation
    procedures used by equipment manufacturers to obtain, record, and interpret test results required to establish that a process consistently produces a sterile product
  18. verification
    procedures used by healthcare facilities to confirm that the validation undertaken by the equipment manufacturer is applicable to the specific setting
  19. d-value
    the amount of time required to kill 90% of the microorganisms present
  20. prions
    virus-like infectious agents that cause a variety of nerodegenerative diseases of human and animals, including CJD in humans
  21. parenteral solutions
    solutions that are administered to pts intravenously
  22. external solutions
    solutions that are normally used for irrigating, topical application, and surgical use that are given orally or by inhalation
  23. hydrologic cycle
    the continual movement of water from the atmosphere to the earth and back to the atmosphere
  24. reverse osmosis
    a water treatment process in which dissolved impurities are seperated from water by forcing the water through a molecular filter membrane
  25. sterility assurance level (SAL)
    probability of a viable microorganism being present on a product unit after sterilization
  26. permissible exposure limits (PELs)
    limits developed by OSHA to indicate the maximum airborne concentration of a contaminant to which an employee may be exposed over the duration specified by the type of PEL assigned to that contaminant
  27. time weighted average (8-hour) - TWA
    the employee's average airborne exposure in any 8-hour work shift of a 40-hour work week which should not be exceeded
  28. alkylation
    the process by which ethylene oxide destroys microorganisms, resulting in the inablility of the cell to normally metabolize, reproduce, or both
  29. oxidation
    the act or process of oxidizing: the chemical breakdown of nutrients for energy
  30. aeration
    • process in which a device is actively subjected to moving air.
    • ex: items being sterilized with ethylene oxide gas
  31. residual (EtO)
    the amount of EtO that remains inside materials after they are sterilized
  32. the procedure used by healthcare facilities to confirm that sterilization recommendations from the manufacturer can be successfully undertaken in the hospital setting is called...
  33. the test used to evaluate the efficacy of a steam sterilizer's air removal system is called a .....
    bowie dick test
  34. the ________ is the portion of the steam sterilizer that measures steam temp and automatically controls the flow of air and condensate from the sterilizer chamber.
    thermostatic trap
  35. central service technicians should never use ______ to hold instruments together for sterilization
    rubber bands
  36. steam sterilization heats items within the load using a heat transfer process called
  37. __________ steam sterilization can be used to sterilize liquids
  38. the max weight of wrapped basins shouldn't exceed
    7 pounds
  39. the bacterial spore used for testing dry heat sterilization is...
    baccilus atrophaeus
  40. dry heat sterilization heats items within the load using a heat transfer process called...
  41. the "newest" low temperature sterilization process..
  42. this method of low temp sterilization has been in use since the 1960s...
    ethylene oxide
  43. cycle time for items sterilized using hydrogen peroxide gas plasma..
    less than 1 hr
  44. bacterial spore used to test ethylene oxide sterilization cycles..
    bacillus atrophaeus
  45. cycle time for items sterilized using ozone sterilization..
    4 hours
  46. 140 degrees F aeration time recommended for items sterilized with ethylene oxide..
    8 hours
  47. bacterial spore used to test hydrogen peroxide gas plasma sterilization cycles..
    geobacillus stearothermophilus
  48. cycle time for items sterilized using ethylene oxide sterilization..
    12+ hours
  49. sets exposure standards for chemical sterilants ..
  50. requires that sterilants be rigorously tested before being marketed..
  51. of the 3 major low temp steriliants, EtO has the longest instrument...
    turnaround time
  52. EtO, hydrogen peroxide gas plasma, and ozone sterilization process must all be monitored using...,
    • chemical
    • physical
    • and biological monitors
  53. Eto has better penetration capabilities than ...
    ozone and hydrogen peroxide gas plasma
  54. Eto is a..
    toxic gas
  55. cellulose-containing packaging materials are not compatible with...
    hydrogen peroxide gas plasma sterilization
  56. info about a device's compatibility with a specific sterilization process should be obtained from the...
    device's mannufacturer
  57. _____ is required cycle parameter for ozone and ethylene oxide sterilization.
    relative humidity
  58. high temp (thermal) sterilization
    the sterilization process of choice in healthcare facilities, and is achieved by subjecting items being processed to thermal energy from moist heat (steam) or dry heat
  59. important factors for sterilization: (4)
    • type of microorganisms present
    • number of microorganisms (bioburden)
    • the amount and type of soil present
    • the amount of protection the medical device provides
  60. advantages of steam sterilization:
    • low cost
    • sterilization cycles are fast
    • it is relatively simple tech
    • it leaves no chemical residues or by-products behind
  61. weakest part of a steam sterilizer
    the door
  62. the chamber drain..
    is located at the front or center of the floor of most types of steam sterilizers and must be cleaned at least daily
  63. the printout from a steam sterilization cycle contains the following info:
    • date and time the cycle began
    • selected cycle parameters and activities such as type of cycle, sterilization temp., and dry times
    • a written record of actual cycle activities
  64. table top sterilizers
    thermally-operated valve closes which causes the steam to build-up pressure until the operating temp (normally 121 degrees C [250 degrees F] is reached)
  65. gravity air displacement sterilizer
    • type of steam sterilizer
    • hot air is introduced which rises to the top forcing cooler air to the bottom of the chamber and out the drain, while dynamic air removal units eliminate air during the preconditioning phase with pressure and vacuum pulses
  66. gravity air displacement sterilizers can be used to..
    sterilize liquids
  67. dynamic air removal sterilizers
    (Prevac sterilizer)
    a vacuum pump or water ejector removes the air during the preconditioning phase prior to reaching the exposure temp.
  68. dynamic air removal sterilizers usually operate at ...
    • higher temp than gravity sterilizers
    • 270-275 degrees F
  69. to assure the acutal removal of air in these sterilizers, the integrity of the sterilizers should be checked by processing a ...
    • bowie-dick test
    • or daily air removal test (DART)
  70. flash sterilizers ..
    • are often found in operating rooms or surgical suite substerile rooms
    • (labor and delivery and special procedures areas that perform invasive procedures)
    • their intended use is for the emergency sterilization of instruments when there is not time for terminal sterilization
  71. instrument washer sterilizers...
    may be found in the central service decontamination area, adjacent to operating rooms, or in clinics and surgery centers
  72. conduction (solids)
    ~ type of heat transfer
    • transmission of heat from one part to another part of a material
    • sterilization method: dry heat
  73. convection (liquids and gases)
    ~ type of heat transfer
    • transfer of heat from one point
    • sterilization method: Steam
  74. radiation
    ~ type of heat transfer
    • transfer of heat from one object to another without warming the space between the objects
    • Sterilization method: radiation (not used in hospitals)
    • Ex: from the sun to the earth
  75. flash sterilization involves ...
    sterilizing an item that is not packaged
  76. "terminal sterilization" refers to...
    sterilizing an item that is packaged
  77. saturated steam steriliation cycle has 4 phases
    • conditioning
    • exposure
    • exhaust
    • drying
  78. conditioning (steam sterilizer)
    • steam enters at the upper back portion of the sterilizer, and strikes a baffle plate to preventthe steam from directly hitting the load.
    • as steam enters, air is displaced through the drain
  79. exposure (steam sterilizer)
    • the pressure begins to rise as does the steam temperature.
    • after the desired temp is reached, the sterilizer's control system begins timing the cycle's exposure phase
  80. exhaust
    (steam sterilizer)
    the chamber's drain is opened, and the steam is removed through the discharge line
  81. drying
    (steam sterilizer)
    drying begins at the conclustion of exhaust phase if packaged items are in the load
  82. conditions necessary for an effective steam sterilization process:
    • contact
    • time
    • temp
    • moisture
  83. 2 most commonly encountered temps for steam sterilization are
    • 250- gravity 15 psi
    • 270- prevac 27 psi
  84. saturated steam
    • is mandatory for effective steam sterilization
    • is like a fog because it holds many tiny water droplets in suspension
    • has a relative humidity of 97% to 100%
Card Set
ch 15/16 Iahcsmm
high temp sterilization and low temp sterilization
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