# Logic

 The flashcards below were created by user faulkebr on FreezingBlue Flashcards. Syllogism Any deductive argument in which a conclusion is inferred from 2 premises Categorical Syllogism Adeductive argument of 3 propositions that together contain 3 terms, each of which occurs in 2 of the constituent propositions Standard Form Categorical Syllogism- A categorical Syllogism in which the premises and conclusions are all starndard form categoricalpropositions (A,E,I,O) They are arranged with the major premise first, minor premise second, and the conclusion last Major term/Major premise The term that occurs as the predicate of the conclusion.The major premise is the premise that contains the major term. **The predicate term of the conclusion** Minor term/Minor premise term the occurs as the subject of the conclusion.The minor premise is the premise that contains the minor term **Subject term of the conclusion** Middle Term The term that occurs in both premises, but never in the conclusion. Identify the major, minor, and middle terms and premises of the following proposition No heroes are cowards. Some soldiers are cowards. Therefore some soldiers are not heroes. Major term- HeroesMinor term- SoldiersMiddle term- CowardsMajor premise- No heroes are cowardsMinor premise- Some soldiers are cowards Mood of a syllogism One of the 64 three letter characterizations of categorical syllogisms determined by the forms of the standard form propositions it contains In the given example, the major premise was an E, the minor premise an I, and the conclusion an O. EIO mood. Figure the logical shape of a syllogism, determined by the position of the middle term in its premises; there are 4 possible figures Syllogisms can have 4 possible different figures; 1. The middle term may be the subject term of the major premise and the predicate term of the minor premise2. The middle term may be the predicate term of both premises3. The middle term may be the subject term of both premises4. The middle term may be the predicate term of the major premise and the subject term of the minor premise M--P S--M S--P First figure P--M S--M S--P Second figure M--P M--S S--P Third figure P--M M--S S--P Fourth figure If the middle term is in the subject place in both premises then the figure is third figure If the middle term is in the predicate position in both of the premises then the figure is P-M S-M S-P second figure Therefore; conclusion indicator hence conclusion So conclusion Accordingly conclusion In consequence conclusion Conssequently conclusion Proves that conclusion As a result Conclusion For this reason Conclusion Thus Conclusion For these reasons Conclusion It follows that conclusion I conclude that conclusion Which shows that conclusion Which means that Conclusion Which entails that Conclusion Which implies that Conclusion Which allows us to infer that Conclusion Which points to the conclusion that Conclusion We may infer Conclusion Since premise Because premise For premise As premise Follows from premise As shown by premise Inasmuch as premise As indicated by premise The reason is that premise For the reason that premise May be inferred from premise May be derived from premise May be deduced from premise In view of the fact that premise If the X lands on the line; then it is invalid Rules in diagraming Venn Diagrams 1. Always diagram universal first2. If in diagraming particular (I,O) you have more than one region that you think the X should go, put the X on the line between the two regions Fallacy of Four Terms A formal mistake in which a categorical syllogism contains more than three terms Syllogistic Rules and Fallacies 1. Avoid 4 terms2. Distribute the middle term in atleast 1 premise3. Any term distributed in the con. must be distributed in the premises4. Avoid 2 negative premises5. If either premise is negative the con. must be negative6. From 2 universal premises noparticular con. me be drawn Fallacies that stem from the syllogistic rules 1. Four terms2. Undistributed middle3. Illicit Major/Minor4. Exclusive premises5. Drawing an affirmitive conclusion6. Existential fallacy What is the fallacy? Some M are P Some S are not M Some S are not P Illicit major What is the fallacy? Some M are not P All M are S No S are P Illicit minor What is the fallacy? No P are M Some S are not P Some S are not P The fallacy of exclusive premisestwo negative premises What is the fallacy? All P are M All M are S Some S are P Existential fallacy What is the Fallacy? Some P are not M All S are M All S are P Fallacy of drawing an affirmative conclusion Authorfaulkebr ID110012 Card SetLogic DescriptionChapter 7 Updated2011-10-26T18:32:23Z Show Answers