# Logic

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1. Syllogism
Any deductive argument in which a conclusion is inferred from 2 premises
2. Categorical Syllogism
Adeductive argument of 3 propositions that together contain 3 terms, each of which occurs in 2 of the constituent propositions
3. Standard Form Categorical Syllogism-
• A categorical Syllogism in which the premises and conclusions are all starndard form categoricalpropositions (A,E,I,O)
• They are arranged with the major premise first, minor premise second, and the conclusion last
4. Major term/Major premise
• The term that occurs as the predicate of the conclusion.
• The major premise is the premise that contains the major term.

**The predicate term of the conclusion**
5. Minor term/Minor premise
• term the occurs as the subject of the conclusion.
• The minor premise is the premise that contains the minor term

**Subject term of the conclusion**
6. Middle Term
The term that occurs in both premises, but never in the conclusion.
7. Identify the major, minor, and middle terms and premises of the following proposition

No heroes are cowards.
Some soldiers are cowards.
Therefore some soldiers are not heroes.
• Major term- Heroes
• Minor term- Soldiers
• Middle term- Cowards
• Major premise- No heroes are cowards
• Minor premise- Some soldiers are cowards
8. Mood of a syllogism
One of the 64 three letter characterizations of categorical syllogisms determined by the forms of the standard form propositions it contains

In the given example, the major premise was an E, the minor premise an I, and the conclusion an O. EIO mood.
9. Figure
the logical shape of a syllogism, determined by the position of the middle term in its premises; there are 4 possible figures
10. Syllogisms can have 4 possible different figures;
• 1. The middle term may be the subject term of the major premise and the predicate term of the minor premise
• 2. The middle term may be the predicate term of both premises
• 3. The middle term may be the subject term of both premises
• 4. The middle term may be the predicate term of the major premise and the subject term of the minor premise
11. M--P
S--M
S--P
First figure
12. P--M
S--M
S--P
Second figure
13. M--P
M--S
S--P
Third figure
14. P--M
M--S
S--P
Fourth figure
15. If the middle term is in the subject place in both premises then the figure is
third figure
16. If the middle term is in the predicate position in both of the premises then the figure is
P-M
S-M
S-P
second figure
17. Therefore;
conclusion indicator
18. hence
conclusion
19. So
conclusion
20. Accordingly
conclusion
21. In consequence
conclusion
22. Conssequently
conclusion
23. Proves that
conclusion
24. As a result
Conclusion
25. For this reason
Conclusion
26. Thus
Conclusion
27. For these reasons
Conclusion
28. It follows that
conclusion
29. I conclude that
conclusion
30. Which shows that
conclusion
31. Which means that
Conclusion
32. Which entails that
Conclusion
33. Which implies that
Conclusion
34. Which allows us to infer that
Conclusion
35. Which points to the conclusion that
Conclusion
36. We may infer
Conclusion
37. Since
premise
38. Because
premise
39. For
premise
40. As
premise
41. Follows from
premise
42. As shown by
premise
43. Inasmuch as
premise
44. As indicated by
premise
45. The reason is that
premise
46. For the reason that
premise
47. May be inferred from
premise
48. May be derived from
premise
49. May be deduced from
premise
50. In view of the fact that
premise
51. If the X lands on the line;
then it is invalid
52. Rules in diagraming Venn Diagrams
• 1. Always diagram universal first
• 2. If in diagraming particular (I,O) you have more than one region that you think the X should go, put the X on the line between the two regions
53. Fallacy of Four Terms
A formal mistake in which a categorical syllogism contains more than three terms
54. Syllogistic Rules and Fallacies
• 1. Avoid 4 terms
• 2. Distribute the middle term in atleast 1 premise
• 3. Any term distributed in the con. must be distributed in the premises
• 4. Avoid 2 negative premises
• 5. If either premise is negative the con. must be negative
• 6. From 2 universal premises noparticular con. me be drawn
55. Fallacies that stem from the syllogistic rules
• 1. Four terms
• 2. Undistributed middle
• 3. Illicit Major/Minor
• 4. Exclusive premises
• 5. Drawing an affirmitive conclusion
• 6. Existential fallacy
56. What is the fallacy?

Some M are P
Some S are not M
Some S are not P
Illicit major
57. What is the fallacy?

Some M are not P
All M are S
No S are P
Illicit minor
58. What is the fallacy?

No P are M
Some S are not P
Some S are not P
• The fallacy of exclusive premises
• two negative premises
59. What is the fallacy?

All P are M
All M are S
Some S are P
Existential fallacy
60. What is the Fallacy?

Some P are not M
All S are M
All S are P
Fallacy of drawing an affirmative conclusion

### Card Set Information

 Author: faulkebr ID: 110012 Filename: Logic Updated: 2011-10-26 18:32:23 Tags: Categorical Syllogisms Folders: Description: Chapter 7 Show Answers:

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