Logic

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faulkebr
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110012
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Logic
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2011-10-26 14:32:23
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Categorical Syllogisms
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Chapter 7
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  1. Syllogism
    Any deductive argument in which a conclusion is inferred from 2 premises
  2. Categorical Syllogism
    Adeductive argument of 3 propositions that together contain 3 terms, each of which occurs in 2 of the constituent propositions
  3. Standard Form Categorical Syllogism-
    • A categorical Syllogism in which the premises and conclusions are all starndard form categoricalpropositions (A,E,I,O)
    • They are arranged with the major premise first, minor premise second, and the conclusion last
  4. Major term/Major premise
    • The term that occurs as the predicate of the conclusion.
    • The major premise is the premise that contains the major term.

    **The predicate term of the conclusion**
  5. Minor term/Minor premise
    • term the occurs as the subject of the conclusion.
    • The minor premise is the premise that contains the minor term

    **Subject term of the conclusion**
  6. Middle Term
    The term that occurs in both premises, but never in the conclusion.
  7. Identify the major, minor, and middle terms and premises of the following proposition

    No heroes are cowards.
    Some soldiers are cowards.
    Therefore some soldiers are not heroes.
    • Major term- Heroes
    • Minor term- Soldiers
    • Middle term- Cowards
    • Major premise- No heroes are cowards
    • Minor premise- Some soldiers are cowards
  8. Mood of a syllogism
    One of the 64 three letter characterizations of categorical syllogisms determined by the forms of the standard form propositions it contains

    In the given example, the major premise was an E, the minor premise an I, and the conclusion an O. EIO mood.
  9. Figure
    the logical shape of a syllogism, determined by the position of the middle term in its premises; there are 4 possible figures
  10. Syllogisms can have 4 possible different figures;
    • 1. The middle term may be the subject term of the major premise and the predicate term of the minor premise
    • 2. The middle term may be the predicate term of both premises
    • 3. The middle term may be the subject term of both premises
    • 4. The middle term may be the predicate term of the major premise and the subject term of the minor premise
  11. M--P
    S--M
    S--P
    First figure
  12. P--M
    S--M
    S--P
    Second figure
  13. M--P
    M--S
    S--P
    Third figure
  14. P--M
    M--S
    S--P
    Fourth figure
  15. If the middle term is in the subject place in both premises then the figure is
    third figure
  16. If the middle term is in the predicate position in both of the premises then the figure is
    P-M
    S-M
    S-P
    second figure
  17. Therefore;
    conclusion indicator
  18. hence
    conclusion
  19. So
    conclusion
  20. Accordingly
    conclusion
  21. In consequence
    conclusion
  22. Conssequently
    conclusion
  23. Proves that
    conclusion
  24. As a result
    Conclusion
  25. For this reason
    Conclusion
  26. Thus
    Conclusion
  27. For these reasons
    Conclusion
  28. It follows that
    conclusion
  29. I conclude that
    conclusion
  30. Which shows that
    conclusion
  31. Which means that
    Conclusion
  32. Which entails that
    Conclusion
  33. Which implies that
    Conclusion
  34. Which allows us to infer that
    Conclusion
  35. Which points to the conclusion that
    Conclusion
  36. We may infer
    Conclusion
  37. Since
    premise
  38. Because
    premise
  39. For
    premise
  40. As
    premise
  41. Follows from
    premise
  42. As shown by
    premise
  43. Inasmuch as
    premise
  44. As indicated by
    premise
  45. The reason is that
    premise
  46. For the reason that
    premise
  47. May be inferred from
    premise
  48. May be derived from
    premise
  49. May be deduced from
    premise
  50. In view of the fact that
    premise
  51. If the X lands on the line;
    then it is invalid
  52. Rules in diagraming Venn Diagrams
    • 1. Always diagram universal first
    • 2. If in diagraming particular (I,O) you have more than one region that you think the X should go, put the X on the line between the two regions
  53. Fallacy of Four Terms
    A formal mistake in which a categorical syllogism contains more than three terms
  54. Syllogistic Rules and Fallacies
    • 1. Avoid 4 terms
    • 2. Distribute the middle term in atleast 1 premise
    • 3. Any term distributed in the con. must be distributed in the premises
    • 4. Avoid 2 negative premises
    • 5. If either premise is negative the con. must be negative
    • 6. From 2 universal premises noparticular con. me be drawn
  55. Fallacies that stem from the syllogistic rules
    • 1. Four terms
    • 2. Undistributed middle
    • 3. Illicit Major/Minor
    • 4. Exclusive premises
    • 5. Drawing an affirmitive conclusion
    • 6. Existential fallacy
  56. What is the fallacy?

    Some M are P
    Some S are not M
    Some S are not P
    Illicit major
  57. What is the fallacy?

    Some M are not P
    All M are S
    No S are P
    Illicit minor
  58. What is the fallacy?

    No P are M
    Some S are not P
    Some S are not P
    • The fallacy of exclusive premises
    • two negative premises
  59. What is the fallacy?

    All P are M
    All M are S
    Some S are P
    Existential fallacy
  60. What is the Fallacy?

    Some P are not M
    All S are M
    All S are P
    Fallacy of drawing an affirmative conclusion

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