Vocal Pedagogy

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Vocal Pedagogy
2011-10-19 00:02:56
Vocal Pedagogy Midterm

Vocal Pedagogy MidTerm
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  1. What is the Alexander Technique?
    • 1.) let the neck be free (dont allow tension in the neck muscles to increase)
    • 2.) let the head go forward and up (not back and down)
    • 3.) let the torso widen out and lengthen up (dont allow it to be short-ended and narrow by arching the spine)
  2. What is the Trager Approach?
    "When a body feels lighter, it begins to stand and to move as though it were lighter"
  3. What is rolfing?
    Rolfing involves readjusting the fascia, the connective tissues that connects the muscle.
  4. What are the 3 common elements musical instruments have with the voice and the one that differs?
    Elements in common the voice has with musical instruments are 1.) actuator 2.) a vibrator 3.) a resonator THE human voice has an ARTICULATOR
  5. What are the five steps in the vocal process?
    volition, respiration, phonation, resonation, and articulation
  6. what is definition of VOLITION in the vocal process?
    (Motivator >>Neural Pathways)
  7. what is RESPIRATION referring to in the second step in the vocal process?
    Respiration >> is (actuator>>breath energy)
  8. What is PHONATION referring to in the 3rd step of the vocal process?
    Phonation - (Vibrator>>Creator of fundamental frequency)
  9. What is RESONATION referring to in the fourth step of the vocal process?
    Resonation - (Resonator>>Enhancement tone)
  10. What is ARTICULATION referring to in the fifth and final step in the vocal process?
    Articulation (Articulator>> Shaping of the tongue into recognizable sounds)
  11. How does VOLITION work?
    The brain and the neurological system sends commands to and receives messages from the body, resulting in muscular responses that control various aspects of the vocal process.
  12. How does RESPIRATION for the vocal process work?
    The muscles and the organs of breathing (trachea,lungs, bronchi, diaphragm, ribs and abdominal and back muscles) act in coordination to control the inhalation of the vocal process.
  13. How does PHONATION work?
    The larynx, or the voice box, consists of folds, muscles, ligaments, and cartilages that coordinate airflow, which vibrates the vocal folds to produce a fundamental "Buzz-tone".
  14. How does RESONATION work in reference to the vocal process?
    The combined resonance cavities, principally the mouth, throat, and nose, act as acoustical secondary vibrators for enhancing the fundamental buzz-tone.
  15. How does ARTICULATION work?
    The organs of speech (tongue,jaw,cheeks, teeth, lips, hard palate/soft palate), and alveolar ridges) coordinate in producingall of the sounds normally associated with human verbal communication.
  16. Define Cartilage
    Cartilage- weight bearing tissue which is more flexible than bone.
  17. What are LIGAMENTS?
    Ligaments- hold bones together.
  18. What are TENDONS?
    - are the attachments of muscles to bones.
  19. What are muscles?
    Muscles- Flexible tissue designed to move body parts
  20. Skeletal muscles attach bone to ?
  21. The default setting of muscles is :
    In a state of relaxation
  22. When muscles contract, they....
    Shorten and thicken
  23. When mucles contract, they push or pull the insertion towards the origin?
  24. what does an isometric muscle contraction do?
    tenses a muscle and fixates it, but does NOT shorten it
  25. Muscles exist in agonist and antagonist pairs which means?
    the action of one muscle in the pair is in direct oppostion to the action of the other. When one contracts, the other is stretched and becomes lengthened and thinned.
  26. When both muscles in a pair contract simulataneously:
    there is tension or fixation, without movement
  27. skeletal muscle is:
    under volutary control from the brain
  28. smooth muscle is also known as ------ and is --------
    smooth muscle is visceral muscle that lines a number or organs, and contraction of smooth muscle is regulated by the autonomic nervous system and are NOT under voluntary control
  29. What does the torso contain?
    the torso or the (body trunk) contains the entire respiratory system, except the head airways
  30. The spine is:
    The spine or backbone is the main pillar supporting the breathing mechanism
  31. how many vertabrae does the spine have
    twenty-four each one resting on the one below, with connective tissue in between.
  32. The smallest vertebrae is in the ----------- and the largest is in the ----------
    neck, lower back
  33. How many bones in the neck and what are they called?
    There are seven bones in the neck called the cervical
  34. How many bones in the chest and what are they called ?
    There are twelve bones in the chest and they are called thoracic
  35. The vertebrae below the thoracic are the ------- and there are ---- many of them.
    lumbar and there are five
  36. The lowest lumbar vertebrae connects to the ------- which connects to the ------ and to the --------
    lowes lumbar vetebrae connects to the pelvis, which consists of the sacrum and the coccyx or coxal bone.
  37. what are connected to the top of the thoracic vertebrae?
    a pair of ribs or (costae), one on each side
  38. the ribs are --------- and connect to the
    the ribs are semi-circular and the upper seven of them connect to the breast bone or (sternum) in front
  39. air enters the body and travels through ------- and -----passageways and travels through the ----- .
    oral and nasal , travels through the pharyx
  40. pharynx generally known as the ----- and divided into 3 things:
    pharynx known as the throat and is divided into the nasopharynx, the oropharynx, and laryngopharynx
  41. from the pharynx, air continues to the --------,into the ------, then finally passes into the ----- via the ----- .
    pharynx to the larynx, air continues to the trachea, and finally to the lungs via the bronchi.
  42. air movement from the larynx to the lungs passes via the ----- which is the
    trachea which is the flexible, cylindrical, cartilageneous pipe resembling a vacuum hose
  43. air then goes from the trachea to the the two:
    bronchi (branches) located within the lungs, where they bronchi turn into bronchioles that terminate at alveoli (or air cells)
  44. the rib cage cavity, containing the -----, is lined with a closed sac called the -----,which a double lining for the lungs
    lungs, sac called the pleura
  45. the inner membrane of the pleura of the lungs is called the:
    visceral pleura
  46. the outer membrane of the pleura is the:
    parietal pleura
  47. the space between the two linings of the pleuras is filled with:
    liquid with negative internal pressure, causing them to be sucked together, this also reduces friction to the rib cage
  48. because the pleural membranes are coupled, lungs are held ------, and partially ------,withing the ---- -----, which is laterally expanded and held in place by the ------.
    because the pleural membranes are coupled, lungs are held suspended and partially inflated within the rib cage, which is laterally expanded and held in place by the outward pull of the rib cage.
  49. as muscular forces expand the ------, the ----- must also expand.
    rib cage, the lungs must also expand
  50. there is a ------ pressure within the lungs causing the air to be sucked into the lungs
  51. the amount of air into the ----- depends on the expansion of the ---- ----, which is determined by the ----- -----.
    lungs, depends on expansion of the rib cage, which determined by the muscular forces
  52. the lungs increasingly expand as more air is inaled and exert a force that shrinks them back to thier original size. This is called:
    elasitc recoil force. this works in opposition to the expansion of the rib cage
  53. when the -------- ------ ------ are greater than the muscular forces that expand the ----- ---- , the lungs recoil.
    elastic recoil forces,rib cage,lungs
  54. -------'s air capacities are slightly less then that of -----.
    womens, men
  55. What is the largest muscle in the body?
    The diaphragm
  56. The-------- is the single most important muscle or inhalation or exhalation?
    The diaphragm is the most important muscle of inhalation
  57. The diaphragm serves as both the floor of the ------ and the the ceiling of the ------- ---------.
    chest cavity and the ceiling of the abdominal cavity
  58. At rest the diaphragm resemble an upside down what?
    Salad bowl
  59. the lower six ribs and lumbar vertebrae course ------ward and ---------ward, joining together at the ------ --------in the center of the rib cage
    course inward and up ward, joinger together at the central tendon in the center of the rib cage
  60. the diaphragm is NOT paired with a :
    direct antagonist muscle.
  61. what is the name of the triangle shaped area immedialtely below the sternum and bounded by the 7th rib?
  62. in quiet breathing ------- requires only the --------- contraction , and ----------expiration is an entirely passive process
    in quiet breathing, inspiration requires only the involuntary contraction, and expiration is an entirely passive process
  63. what is the lesser known diaphragm ?
    the pelvic diaphragm
  64. what two muscle groups att attach to the ribs and what do they do?
    intercostal muscles attach to the ribs, filling the gaps between the ribs with muscles and membranes.
  65. what is the main purpose of the intercostal muscles?
    to aid inhalation and exhalation and help to create a subglottal (below the vocal folds) air pressure for voice use
  66. by use of intercostal muscles, how is voice use created?
    coordinating and balancing the action of the inspiratory and expiratory muscles and by providing checking action to the passive process of respiration
  67. external intercostal muscles...... do what?
    originate from a higher rib, and insert into a lower rib, and when they contract pull the lower rib toward the upper rib
  68. excessive movement of 1 thru 10 is bad for singing because:
    it usually involves neck muscle action (scalenes and sternocleidomastoids) which lifts the upper 2 ribs and the sternum to which they are attached
  69. internal intercostal muscles originate from a :
    lower rib and insert into a higher rib
  70. when internal intercostal muscles contract, they pull the upper rib ------ and ------ the ----- ----.
    upper rib up and toward the lower rib
  71. ------ muscles are not necessary in quiet breathing
    internal intercostal breathing
  72. the belly muscles are used for --------- and to support or steady the tone when speaking and singing
  73. the most important muscles in expiration are :
    external /internal obliques and transverse abdominus
  74. the repiratory role of the rectus abdominis is important because:
    it should be relaxed during inhalation in order to allow for displacment of the abdominal viscera by the contraction of the diaphragm
  75. what is one common misconception of the diaphragm
    first misconception is that diaphragmatic action cannot be consciously controlled , except indirectly as when willing to hold a breath
  76. what is the second misconception of the diaphragm
    "support with the diaphragm" manner of singing
  77. what is the third misconception about singing?
    to be able to place your hands on the diaphragm
  78. what are the four phases of respiration
    • 1.) respiration in, down , and out,
    • 2.) suspension
    • 3.) expiration
    • 4.) recovery
  79. what is the myoelastic-aerodynamic theory?
    complex interactions of the muscular forces and elastic properties of the vocal folds (myoelastic), working in combination with airflow (aerodynamic) to produce vocal tone
  80. what is the space between the two vocal folds called?
  81. phonation is a result of what 3 things
    • 1.) recoil of the lungs and diaphragm causing air to go through the glottis
    • 2.) muscular forces within the larynx adduct the vocal folds or bring them together
    • 3.) airflow throught the narrowed glottis causes the folds to beat or oscillate together rapidly
  82. what is another point about myoelastic-aerodynamic theory?
    • that vocal folds are adducted because of neurological impulses
    • and vocal tone is produced when airflow from the confined spaces of the lungs, trachea, and subglottic area moves through the glottis to a larger space because of a drop in pressure across the glottis and causing them to be sucked together
  83. what is the sucking of the vocal folds caused by
    • 1.) the elasticity of the vocal folds
    • 2.) the aerodynamic factor of the Bernoulli Effect
  84. vocal cords are also know as
    vocal folds
  85. what is the only true bone in the larynx
    hyoid bone
  86. when cricoid and thyroid ossify they feel like
  87. what bone is the only bone not attached to any other bone but suspended by muscles
  88. what is commonly known as adams apple and shaped like a shield
    thyroid cartilage
  89. what resemble a signet ring
    cricoid cartilage
  90. where are the thyroid and cricoid cartilages hinged together
    inferior cornu
  91. what do arytenoids do
    open and close glottis or vocal folds during breathing and phonation
  92. what is the anterior extension of each arytenoid?
    vocal process
  93. the vocal process is the posterior attachment to:
    the thyroarytenoid muscle
  94. what is attached to the inside of the thyroid notch
  95. what is the leaf shaped cartilage covering the glottis
  96. what are the intrinsic laryngeal muscles
    • 1.) abductors (openers) posterior cricoarytenoids for this
    • 2.) adductors (closers) interarytenoids used for this
    • 3.) tensors (lengthening and thinning) contraction of the cricothyroid causing cartilage rock forward, mucosal cover more tense
    • 4.) relaxers (shortening and thickening) throarytenoid muscle or vocalis muscle as it contracts , shortens folds
  97. what are the muscles in the neck, head and shoulders commonly called
    strap muscles (infrahyoid) and (suprahyoid)
  98. infrahyoid muscles are the :
    primary laryngeal depressors
  99. the suprahyoid muscles :
    counterbalance the infrahyoid muscles
  100. what is the first vocal tone release and what does it do:
    aspirate (soft release) when vocal folds dont close completely during the glottal cycle, breathy tone quality
  101. what is the1st vocal tone release and what does it do?
    aspirate or soft onset excessive airflow at the onset like "H"
  102. what is the 2nd vocal tone onset issue
    glottal (hard) onset and this produces pressed phonation
  103. what is the 2nd vocal tone release
    glottal or hard release is the "terminal grunt" when operal singers end on a high note
  104. what is the 3rd vocal tone onset issue
    coordinated or balanced onset "gesture of inhalation"
  105. what is the 3rd vocal tone release issue
    coordinated or balanced release , allowing for not too much or too little tension on vocal folds