Anatomy quiz 5

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elz125
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110026
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Anatomy quiz 5
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2011-10-20 21:25:52
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Anatomy physiology speech phonation
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Anatomy and Physiology of Phonation
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  1. What is phonation?
    the product of vibrating vocal folds (voicing)
  2. Where does phonation occur?
    within the larynx
  3. What is the larynx?
    a musculo-cartilaginous structure that houses 2 bands of tissue we call the vocal folds
  4. Where is the larynx located?
    the superior end (top) of the trachea
  5. What are the biological functions of the larynx?
    • stops intrusion of foreign matter (choking)
    • seals the respiratory system (can hold breath for swimming, etc)
    • helps to "fix thorax" when vocal folds are closed so you can lift, defecate, push during childbirth
  6. *Label picture
  7. What are the major unpaired cartilages?
    • cricoid
    • thyroid
  8. What are the major paired cartilages?
    • arytenoid
    • corniculate
    • cuneiform
  9. What is included in the framework of the larynx?
    • major cartilages (cricoid, thyroid, arytenoid, corniculate, cuneiform)
    • hyoid bone
    • epiglottis
  10. What are the characterisitcs of cricoid cartilage?
    • unpaired
    • located at the base of the larynx / top of the trachea
  11. What are the landmarks on the cricoid?
    • amterior portion is low, vocal folds pass over this point
    • posterior portion is where arytenoids connect
    • lateral surfaces have facets which connect to inferior horns of thyroid cartilage (cricothyroid joint, a diarthroidal joint, permitting rotation)
  12. What are joints?
    form the functional connections between bones and cartilages (bone to bone and cartilage to cartilage)
  13. What are the 3 major types of joints?
    • synarthroidal/fibrous/immobile (bones of the skull)
    • amphiarthrodial/cartilaginous/limited mobility (between disks of vertebral column)
    • diarthrodial/synovial/highly mobile (shoulder)
  14. What are the characteristics of the thyroid cartilage?
    • unpaired
    • largest of laryngeal cartilages
  15. What are the landmarks on the thyroid cartilage?
    • 2 plates (thyroid laminae)
    • joined together at the thyroid angle
    • superior-most point of angle is thyroid notch (vocal folds attach to thyroid cartilage behind the notch)
    • oblique line (muscles attach here)
    • posterior part is open
    • 2 sets of cornu (horns): inferior: project down to articulate with cricoid; superior: project up to articulate with hyoid bone
  16. What are the characteristics of the arytenoid cartilages?
    • paired
    • located on cricoid
    • on superior surface of each arytenoid is a corniculate cartilage
  17. What are the landmarks on the arytenoid cartilages?
    • vocal processes: project anteriorly toward thyroid notch (posterior portion of vocal folds attaches here)
    • muscular processes: muscles that open and close vocal folds attach here
  18. What are the characteristics of the epiglottis?
    • a "leaflike structure"
    • arises from inner surface of the angle of the thyroid cartilage, just below notch (connected by the thyroepiglottic ligament)
    • the sides of the epiglottis join with arytenoid cartilages by the aryepiglottic folds
    • attaches to the root of the tongue (valleculae are in this region- important landmark in swallowing)
    • also attaches to hyoid bone (hyoepiglottic ligament)
  19. What are the characteristics of the cuneiform cartilages?
    • paired
    • embedded in aryepiglottic folds (situated above and anterior to the corniculate cartilages)
    • provide support for membranous laryngeal covering
  20. What are the characteristics of the hyoid bone?
    • not a bone of the larynx
    • provides union between tongue and larynx
    • unpaired and small
    • only bone in body that is not attached to another bone
    • is "U" shaped, open in posterior
    • corpus is main part (6 muscles attach to this)
    • has cornu (greater and lesser)- more muscles attach to these
  21. What is the cricothyroid joint?
    • synovial joint
    • junction of cricoid cartilage and inferior cornu of thyroid
    • cricoid and thyroid rotate and glide in relation to one another
    • thyroid rocks down and front, and can glide forward and backward
    • allows for changes in vocal pitch
  22. What is the cricoarytenoid joint?
    • synovial joint
    • the articulation between cricoid and arytenoid cartilages
    • rocking, gliding, and minimal rotation
    • the rocking action pulls 2 processes toward each other, allowing vocal folds to approximate (make contact) and abduct
  23. What is the ventricular fold?
    false vocal folds
  24. Which extrinsic ligaments attach hyoid or trachea to laryngeal cartilages?
    • thyrohyoid membrane (or hyothyroid)- stretches from greater cornu of hyoid to lateral thyroid cartilage
    • lateral thyrohyoid ligament- cornu thyroid to cornu hyoid
    • median thyrohyoid ligament
    • *together these 3 connect larynx and hyoid bone
  25. Hyoepiglottic ligament
    • extrinsic
    • connects hyoid and epiglottis
  26. Thyroepiglottic ligament
    • extrinsic
    • connects thyroid and epiglottis
  27. Glosoepiglottic ligaments
    • extrinsic
    • connect tongue and epiglottis
    • overlay of mucous membranes on these ligaments produce "little valleys" or valleculae between the tongue and epiglottis
  28. Cricotracheal membrane
    • extrinsic ligament
    • how trachea attaches to larynx
  29. What are intrinsic ligaments?
    • connect the cartilages of the larynx
    • provide support for larynx and vocal folds
  30. Quadrangular membranes
    • intrinsic
    • an "undergirding" layer of connective tissue running from arytenoids to epiglottis and thyroid cartilage
    • forms the false vocal folds
  31. Aryepiglottic fold
    • intrinsic
    • ridges that mark highest elevation of aryepiglottic muscles
    • course between epiglottis and arytenoids
  32. What are the 5 layers of tissue ihn the vocal folds?
    • 1. squamous epithelium- glistening appearance
    • lamina propria (next 3):
    • 2. elastin fibers
    • 3. another layer of elastin fibers
    • 4. collagen fibers (prohibit extension)
    • 5. thyrovocalis muscle (makes up bulk of vocal folds)
    • *1 and 2 make up "mucosal lining"
    • *layers 3 and 4 make up "vocal ligament"
  33. Pyriform sinus
    • space between aryepiglottic folds and thyroid cartilage
    • also involved in swallowing process
  34. Aditus
    entry to the larynx from pharynx above
  35. Vestibule
    first cavity of the larynx (space between aditus and ventricular folds/false vocal folds)
  36. Laryngeal ventricle
    middle space of larynx
  37. Glottis
    space between true vocal folds
  38. Adduction
    the act of bringing the vocal folds together for phonation
  39. Abduction
    the process of drawing the vocal folds apart to terminate phonation
  40. Adductor muscles
    • lateral cricoarytenoid
    • transverse arytenoid
    • oblique arytenoids
  41. Abductor muscle
    posterior cricoarytenoid
  42. Tensors
    • cricothyroid
    • pars recta (the medial-most component) and pars oblique (lateral to the pars recta)
    • thyrovocalis
  43. Relaxers
    thyromuscularis
  44. Medial compression
    • degree of force that may be applied to the vocal folds at their point of contact
    • increased medial compression results from increased force of adduction
    • increased medial compression is vital element in vocal intensity changes
  45. Longitudinal tension
    • degree of force when stretching the folds
    • change in longitudinal tension is important in changing pitch
  46. Which refers to the degree of force that may be applied to the vocal folds at their point of contact: medial compression or longitudinal tension?
    medial compression
  47. Lateral Cricoarytenoid
    • function: adducts vocal folds, increases medial compression
    • origin: superior-lateral surface of the cricoid cartilage
    • course: up and back
    • insertion: muscular process of the arytenoids
    • movement: motion rocks arytenoids inward and downward
  48. Transverse Arytenoid
    • function: adducts vocal folds, increases medial compression; pulls arytenoids closer together
    • origin: lateral margin of posterior arytenoids
    • course: laterally
    • insertion: lateral margin of posterior surface of opposite arytenoids
  49. Oblique (Inter)Arytenoid Muscles
    • function: promote adduction, enforce medial compression
    • origin: posterior base of the muscular procceses
    • course: obliquely up
    • insertion: apex of the opposite arytenoids
    • movement: pulls apex of opposite arytenoids medially, rocks vocal folds down and in
    • *also helps to pull epiglottis to cover larynx during swallow
  50. Posterior Cricarytenoid
    • function: abduct the vocal folds
    • origin: posterior cricoid lamina
    • course: up and out
    • insertion: posterior aspect of the muscular process of arytenoids cartilage
    • movement: pulls muscular process posteriorly, rocking arytenoid cartilage out on its axis
  51. Cricothyroid
    • 2 parts: pars recta and pars oblique
    • origin: PR- anterior surface of the cricoid cartilage immediately beneath the arch. PO- cricoid cartilage, lateral to the pars recta
    • course: PR- up and out. PO- obliquely up
    • insertion: PR- lower surface of the thyroid lamina. PO- point of juncture between thyroid laminae and inferior horns
    • function: tenses vocal folds; pulls thyroid down
  52. Thyrovocalis (medial thyroarytenoid)
    • function: tenses vocal folds
    • origin: inner surface, thyroid cartilage near notch
    • course: back
    • insertion: lateral surface of the arytenoid vocal processes
  53. Thyromuscularis (lateral thyroarytenoid)
    • function: relaxes vocal folds because of arytenoid rotation, pulling the arytenoids toward the thyroid cartilage
    • origin: inner surface of thyroid cartilage near the notch
    • course: back
    • insertion: muscular process and base of arytenoids cartilage
    • ***innervation for all intrinsic muscles: vagus X
  54. Extrinsic muscles that are considered elevators (hyoid and laryngeal elevators)
    • digastricus
    • stylohyoid
    • mylohyoid
    • geniohyoid
    • hyoglossus
    • genioglossus
    • thyropharygeus
  55. Hyoid and laryngeal depressors
    • sternohyoid
    • omohyoid
    • sternothyroid
    • thyrohyoid
  56. Non-speech laryngeal functions
    • coughing
    • through clearing
    • abdominal fixation
  57. Laryngeal functions for speech
    phonation
  58. 3 major laryngeal adjustments
    • attack
    • termination
    • sustained phonation
  59. Attack
    • bringing the vocal folds together (adducting), caused by muscle action
    • initiates voicing
  60. Simultaneous vocal attack
    vocal folds reach the critical degree of adduction at the same time as respiratory support is enough to support phonation ("zany")
  61. Breathy vocal attack
    starting airflow from lungs before adducting the vocal folds ("harry")
  62. Glottal attack
    • adduction of vocal folds occurs prior to airflow (as it does in a cough)
    • usually occurs when a word begins with a stressed vowel ("okay")
  63. Termination
    • stopping phonation (requires that hwe abduct the vocal folds)
    • we terminate phonation many times during running speech
  64. Sustained phonation
    we get sustained phonation by holding the vocal folds in place, and by the Bernoulli effect
  65. Bernoulli effect
    given a constant volume flow of air or fluid, at a point of constriction, there will be a decrease in air pressure perpendicular to the flow, and an increase in velocity of the flow
  66. Summary of vocal fold movement
    • we adduct the vocal folds using muscles of adduction
    • we then tense the vocal folds and allow the Bernoulli effect to produce vibration and sustained phonation (using muscles to tense)
    • we abduct the vocal folds using muscles of abduction
    • these steps occur many many times in connected speech, depending on if sounds are voiced/voiceless, etc
  67. Cycle of vibration
    moving from one point in the vibratory pattern to same point again (open, closed, open again)
  68. Mode of vibration
    the pattern of activity that the vocal folds undergo during one cycle of vibration
  69. Register
    differences in the mode of vibration of the vocal folds
  70. 3 common registers
    • modal register
    • glottal fry
    • falsetto
  71. Modal register
    • pattern of phonation used in daily conversation
    • 2 variations: pressed phonation and breathy phonation
  72. Pressed phonation
    • with this type of phonation, medial compression is greatly increased
    • voice sounds more harsh
    • this is also more abusive to the vocal folds
  73. Breathy phonation
    • vocal folds are inadequately approximated- excessive airflow between the vocal folds (will hear air escaping)
    • inefficient, but not abusive
  74. Glottal fry
    • a variation from modal register (also called pulse register)
    • voice sounds crackly
    • low in pitch and sounds rough
  75. Falsetto
    • another variation from modal register
    • the vocal folds lengthen and become extremely thin
    • the vocal folds make contact only briefly, as compared with modal phonation, and the degree of movement is reduced
    • sounds "thin" and high pitched
  76. Pitch
    • the psychological correlate of frequency (of vibration)
    • as frequency increases, pitch increases
  77. Optimal pitch
    the frequency of vocal fold vibration that is optimal for a given individual considering a function of the mass and elasticity of the vocal folds
  78. Habitual pitch
    the frequency of vibration of vocal folds that is habitually used during speech
  79. Average fundamental frequency
    frequency of vibration of sustained phonation (such as in conversational speech or reading passages)
  80. Pitch range
    the range of fundamental frequency for an individual
  81. How do we alter pitch?
    • through tensing and stretching the vocal folds (higher pitch)
    • relax and shorten vocal folds (lower pitch)
  82. Intensity
    the physical measure of power or pressure ratios (the amount of pressure exerted by the sound wave
  83. Loudness
    • psychological correlate of intensity
    • independent of each other (you can increase intensity without increasing frequency)

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