Bio dietary energy and cellular respiration

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babaghannouj
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110070
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Bio dietary energy and cellular respiration
Updated:
2011-10-18 23:59:12
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biology dietary energy cellular respiration
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bio 160 ch 6
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  1. calorie
    the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1
  2. Calorie
    • 1,000 calories or 1 kilocalorie (kcal = C)
    • common unit of energy used in food nutrition labels
  3. daily Caloric intake
    • total energy needs vary from person to person and depend on gender, age, body type and activity level
    • when we eat more Calories than our bodies need, we store the extra energy as glycogen in muscle and liver cells or triglycerides in fat cells
    • the body burns fat only after it has already used up food molecules in the bloodstream and stored in glycogen
  4. glycogen
    complex animal carb, made up of linked chains of glucose molecules, that stores energy for short-term use
  5. triglycerides
    a type of lipid found in fat cells that stores excess energy for long-term use
  6. adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
    • energy from food is ultimately captured in the form of ATP
    • the molecule that cells use to power energy-requiring functions
    • when ATP bonds are broken, energy is released, allowing the cells to do cellular work
  7. aerobic respiration
    • a series of reactions that occurs in the presence of oxygen (why breathing is so important)and converts energy stored in food into ATP
    • occurs in the mitochondria
  8. how do our bodies extract energy from food?
    • through the process of digestion food molecules are broken into their smaller subunits.
    • the subunits leave the small intestine and enter the bloodstream, where they are carried to the body's cells
    • inside the cells, enzymes break apart the bonds holding the subunits together
    • the energy stored in those bonds is captured and converted into the molecular bonds that make up ATP
  9. what is the most common source of energy for all organisms?
    glucose
  10. what does the aerobic respiration of glucose look like?
    glucose + oxygen -> carbon dioxide + water + energy (+ heat)
  11. glycolysis
    • a series of reactions that breaks down sugar into smaller units (glucose -> pyruvate)
    • takes place in the cytoplasm
    • first step of both aerobic respiration and fermentation
  12. citric acid (Krebs) cycle
    • a set of reactions that take place in mitochondria and helps extract energy from food
    • energy is held within bonds of NADH and FADH2
    • second step of aerobic respiration
    • this process releases carbon dioxide, which is ultimately exhaled by the lungs
  13. electron transport chain
    • the electrons stripped from the carbon bonds during the citric acid cycle are carried to the inner membranes of the mitochondria (via NADH and FADH2) where they go through electron transport
    • a process that takes place in mitochondria and produces the bulk of ATP during aerobic respiration
    • third step of aerobic respiration
    • electrons are passed down a chain of molecules to oxygen, which accepts the electrons and combines with hydrogen atoms to produce water
    • a proton gradient is established and used to generate ATP
  14. fermentation
    • in the absence of oxygen, aerobic respiration cannot occur, so after glycolysis, the products of glycolysis go through fermentation
    • a series of chemical reactions that takes place in the absence of oxygen and converts some of the energy stored in food to ATP
    • produces far less ATP than aerobic respiration
    • occurs in the cytoplasm
    • produces lactic acid or alcohol
  15. show the cycle of aerobic respiration and photosynthesis
  16. trans fat
    • type of vegetable fat which has been hydrogenated to make it solid at room temp
    • this way it can more closely mimick saturated fat (lard, butter)
  17. saturated fat
    animal fat that is solid at room temp
  18. unsaturated fat
    • plant fat such as olive oil
    • liquid at room temp
    • considered more healthful
  19. health risks associated with obesity
    increased rates of heart disease, diabetes and others
  20. body mass index (BMI)
    • measure of body fat using ratio of height to weight
    • BMI between 25 and 29.9 - overweight
    • BMI above 30 - obese - 20% more body fat than recommended for their height
    • doesn't take muscle mass, gender or frame size into account
  21. show in detail the aerobic respiration of a glucose molecule

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