Exam 2

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kppatel702
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110120
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Exam 2
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2011-10-18 22:51:41
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  1. Healthy People Goals?
    • Goal 1: Increase quality and years of healthy life
    • Goal 2: Eliminate health disparities
  2. Measurable Objectives
    • Time frame
    • Direction of change
    • Magnitude of change
    • Definition of the way change will be measured

    SMART - specific, measurable, attainable, realistic, time bound
  3. Process Objective
    • -Concerned with what you hope to do along the path to your outcome objective
    • -Speficies the means or how to attain outcome
    • -Includes how well we are implementing our methods

    Say how
  4. Outcome Objective
    -Concerned with what your are seeking to change

    Expected Outcomes: knowledge, skills, attitudes, performance

    -Measures the success of a program

    Specify the client change
  5. Implementation (proper definition)
    The strategic plan for putting a program into action
  6. Criteria for Selection of Health Methods
    • acceptability
    • literacy
    • customary ways of gaining info
    • cost
    • convenience
    • feasibility
  7. Creating New Materials or Adapting Existing Materials
    • clarity
    • consistency
    • main points
    • tone and appeal
    • credibility
    • reading level
    • language
    • public need
  8. Pre-Testing Characterisitics
    • attraction
    • comprehension
    • acceptability
    • personal involvement
    • persuasion
  9. Concerns Associated with Implementation
    • legal concerns
    • program safety
    • program registration and fee collection
    • procedures for record keeping
    • program logisitics
    • moral and ethical concerns
  10. 5 Phases of Program Implementation
    • 1. adoption of the program
    • 2. identify and prioritize tasks that need to be completed
    • 3. establish a system of management
    • 4. putting plan into action
    • 5. ending or sustaining a program
  11. Gantt Chart
    timeline with tasks that can be connected to each other and focusses on the sequence of tasks
  12. PERT
    program evaluation and review technique

    • -another way to evaluate
    • -flow chart
  13. Evaluation
    determining what a program achieved and comparing that with what was expected; comparing with standards
  14. Standards
    • Arbitrary
    • Scientific
    • Historical
    • Normative
    • Compromise
  15. Purposes of Evaluation
    • Accuracy of results; or a difference made
    • Generalized to real world
    • Degree of achievement
    • Document program strengths and weaknesses
    • Contribute to science base
    • Improve staff, skills
    • Fulfill grant or contract reqs
  16. 6 Steps in Evaluation
    • Engaging stakeholders
    • Describe the program
    • Focus the evaluation design
    • Gather credible evidence
    • Justify conclusions
    • Ensure use and share lessons learned
  17. 4 Standards for Good Evaluation
    • Utility
    • Fesibility
    • Propriety
    • Accuracy
  18. Formative
    • Has to do with program development and implementation
    • Immediate or short impact of an intervention
  19. Summative
    Generally associated with program impacts and outcomes
  20. Process
    • Tracking how and how well your program is working
    • Monitoring the quality and quantity of procedures
  21. Impact
    • Intermediate Outcome Evaluation
    • Can be carried ot immediately after an intervention to look at the intermediate outcomes
  22. Outcome
    • Final Outcome Evaluation
    • Concerned with assessing the long term effect on the health of the target audience
  23. Cost Benefit Analysis
    Cost (intervention) and outcome (health outcome rate) measured in $$
  24. Cost Effectiveness Analysis
    Outcomes measured in physical units

    example: life years gained or symptom free days
  25. Qualitative
    • Soft (narrative) data
    • Asks why
    • Subjective
    • Insight to behavior, trends, etc..
    • Focus groups
  26. Quantitative
    • Hard data (numeric)
    • Asks how many or how often
    • Objective
    • Explores relationships between variables
  27. Non-Experimental: The One Shot Case Study Design
    E x post test


    experimental group gets the intervention then post test to see results
  28. Non-Experimental: One Group Pretest and Posttest
    E pretest x posttest

    experimental group gets pretest then intervention then a posttest

    • useful in formative stages
    • pilot test
  29. Non-Experimental: One Group Time Series Design
    E 01 02 03 (pre) x 01 02 03 (post)

    experimental group gets observed a certain amount of times then gets intervention then gets observed again a few times

    good to examine trends and patterns
  30. Experimental Design: Post Test Only Control Group
    • R E x post
    • R C post

    two groups each randomly assigned, experimental group gets intervention and then both groups are given post test
  31. Experimental Design: Randomized Control Group Pretest Posttest Design (randomized pretest and posttest with an e and c group)
    • R E pre x post
    • R C pre post

    two groups each randomly assigned, both groups get pretest but the e group gets intervention then both get posttest
  32. Quasi-Experimental Design: Nonequivalent Comparison
    • E pre x post
    • C pre post

    Both groups pre tested only e gets intervention and then both posttested
  33. Quasi-Experimental Design: Multiple Time Series
    • E 01 02 03 (pre) x 01 02 03 (post)
    • C 01 02 03 (pre) 01 02 03 (post)

    both groups get observed a few times, group e gets intervention then both get posttested
  34. Reliability vs Validity
    • Reliability - consistency
    • Validity - accurate
  35. Internal Validity
    The extent to which an observed effect can be attributed to a planned intervention
  36. External Validity
    The extent to which an observed impact can be generalized to other setting and populations with similar characteristics
  37. Measurement
    process of assigning numbers or labels to objects, persons, states, or events

    can be measured nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio
  38. Nominal
    • no order
    • more label like
    • example: gender, yes/no, race, categories
  39. Ordinal
    • Order matters but no equal distance apart
    • example, small medium large, ratings 10 - 1
  40. Interval
    • Ordered
    • Difference in two values matters
    • Temperature
    • 0 doesnt mean 0
  41. Ratio
    Example: height, weight, time, age

    equal intervals
  42. LOGIT Model
    depiction of a program showing what the program will do and what is to accomplish

    a series of if then relationships, tat, if implemented as intended, lead to the desired outcomes

    input > output > outcomes

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