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What are the 3
What are the 3
- Sucrose - most common - table sugar
- Lactose - Dairy Sugar
- Maltose - least common - malted barley
What are 2
Which of the polysaccharides is found in food?
What do the terms
monosaccharide, disaccharide, and polysaccharide refer to?
- monosaccharide = 1 bond - simple carbohydrate
- disaccharide = 2 bonds - simple carbohydrate
- polysaccharides = greater than 10 bonds - complex carbohydrate
What are the 2 types
How is fiber used in
- Slows gastric emptying
- May delay absorption
- May help protect against colon cancer
What are the benefits of fiber?
- Relieves constipation
- Helps reduce serum cholesterol
- Improve appetite control
- Normalize blood glucose levels
- Lower risk of heart disease
- Lower blood cholesterol by binding bile
What are the primary
enzymes used in carbohydrate digestion?
- Pancreatic amylase
What is lactose
- Deficiency of lactase to digest lactose
- Results in nausea, cramps, bloating, flatulence, and diarrhea
How is lactose intolerance treated?
- Eating foods only w/ 6 g of lactose
- Increasing intake of milk gradually
What is glycogen?
Glucose that is converted
Where is glycogen stored in the body?
What does gluconeogenesis mean?
Conversion of protein to glucose or the making of glucose from a noncarbohydrate source
What is insulin and what role does it play in blood glucose regulation?
- A hormone secreted by special cells in the pancreas in response to (among other things) increased blood glucose concentration
- It lowers blood glucose levels
What is glucagon and what role does it play in blood glucose regulation?
- A hormone that is secreted by special cells in the pancreas in response to low blood glucose concentration and elicits release of glucose from liver glycogen stores.
- Increases blood glucose levels
What is epinephrine and what role does it play in blood glucose regulation?
- A hormone of the adrenal gland that modulates the stress response.
- Increases blood glucose levels
What impact does sugar have on dental health?
Increases Dental Carries
What is PKU?
It is phenylketonuria an inherited disease
What artificial sweetener needs to be avoided by people with PKU and why?
- People with PKU are unable to dispose of any excess phenylalanine. Accumulation of phenylalanine is toxic to developing nervous system, causing irreversible brain damage
What is the difference between a refined grain and a whole grain?
- Whole grain is not processed the whole kernal is used
- Refined grain is processed
What nutrients are
added back to grains in the enrichment process in the United States?
- Folic Acid
- Bran (fiber)
- Vitamin E
- Heart-Healthy fats
What are at least 3 reasons people make food choices?
- Taste and enjoyment
- Culture and environment
- Social reasons and trends
- Weight concerns, body image, and health benefits
- Time, convenience, and cost
- Habits and emotions
What are the 6 classes of nutrients?
- Fats (lipids)
Which classes of nutrients are macronutrients?
- Nutrients the body needs in large amounts
Which classes of nutrients are micronutrients?
- Essential nutrients the body needs in smaller amounts
What is a key
difference between macronutrients and micronutrients?
- The amount that is needed by the body for both
- Macronutrients needed in large amounts
- Micronutrients needed in smaller amounts
How much energy per gram does each of the nutrients that provide energy provide?
- Carbohydrates = 4 kcal/g
- Lipids = 9 kcal/g
- Proteins = 4 kcal/g
- Alcohol = 7 kcal/g
Given the grams of
protein, carbohydrate, fat, and alcohol in a food or meal, how would you
calculate the total calories? How would
you calculate the percent of calories from each of those nutrients?
- 70 g protein
- 16 g carbs
- 4 g fat
- 50 g alcohol
- 70 x 4 = 280 kcal
- 16 x 4 = 64 kcal
- 4 x 9 = 36 kcal
- 50 x 7 = 350 kcal
- 280 + 64 + 36 + 350 = 730 total kcal
- To get the percent of calories take the kcal of each item and divide it by the total kcal.
- 280/730 = .38 x 100 = 38%
What does the term
nutritional genomics refer to?
- The science of how nutrients affect the activities of genes and how genes affect the activities of nutrients
- Tremendous potential to provide personalized dietary recommendations based on genetic makeup
What does blinding mean?
an experiment in which the subjects do not know whether they are members of the experimental group or the control group
What does placebo mean?
an inert, harmless medication given to provide comfort and hope; a sham treatment used in controlled research studies
What is a control group?
a group of individuals similar in all possible respects to the experimental group except for the treatment. Ideally, the control group receives a placebo while the experimental group receives a real treatment.
What is an intervention group?
Researchers ask people to adopt a new behavior. These trials help determine the effectiveness of such interventions on the development or prevention of disease.
What is a case-control group?
Researchers compare people who do and do not have a given condition such as a disease, closely matching them in age, gender, and other key variables so that differences in other factors will stand out. These differences may account for the condition in the group that has it.
What is a cross-sectional study?
Researchers observe how much and what kinds of foods a group of people eat and how healthy those people are. Their findings identify factors that might influence the incidence of a disease in various populations.
What is a cohort study?
Researchers analyze data collected from a selected group of people (a cohort) at intervals over a certain period of time.
What are 4 key
principles of healthy eating?
What does the term nutrient density refer to? What would be an example of a food with high nutrient density? An example of a food with low
- a measure of nutrients a food provides relative to the energy it provides. the more nutrients and the fewer kcalories, the higher the nutrient density.
- Grapes - high nutrient density
- Cola - low nutrient density
What does DRI stand
- Reference values for nutrients developed by the Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) of the Institute of Medicine
- Used to plan and evaluate the diets of healthy people in the United States and Canada
What are the 5 parts of the DRI?
- Estimated Average Requirements (EAR)
- Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)
- Adequate Intakes (AI)
- Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL)
- Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDR)
What does EAR mean?
- Starting point for determining other values
- Amount of a nutrient projected to meet the needs of 50% of healthy Americans by age and gender
- Requirements are based on a measurement that indicates whether the individual is at risk of a deficiency
- If there isn't enough research to develop an appropriate measurement for a nutrient, EAR is not established
- Used to calculate RDAs
What does RDA mean?
- Recommendation for each nutrient that should meet the needs of nearly all (97 to 98%) of the individuals in a specific gender and age group
- Higher than the EARs
- Not available for all nutrients
What does AI mean?
- Estimate based on the judement of the FNB members
- Next best scientific estimate of the amount of a nutrient that groups of similar individuals should consume to maintain good health
- Set without having established RDAs
- Only estimation for nutrients' adequacy in infants
What does UL mean?
- Highest amount of nutrient that is unlikely to casue harm if consumed daily
- Consumption above the is level increases risk of toxicity
- Not all nutrients have ULs
What does AMDR mean?
- Ensure that intake of nutrients is adequate and proportionate to physiological needs
- Carbs 45-65% of daily kcal
- Fats 20-35% of daily kcal
- Proteins 10-35% of daily kcal
For what condition
were exchange lists originally developed and how can they be used?
- Originally developed for people with diabetes
- They can be used for general diet planning
Which items are
required to be listed on a food label?
- Name of food
- Net weight, the weight of the food in the package, excluding weight of the package or packing material
- Name and address of the manufacturer of distributor
- List of ingredients in descending order by weight
- Uniform nutritional information
- Serving sizes
- Specific criteria for health claims
- Nutrition Information: total kilocalories, kilocalories from fat, total fat, saturated fat, trans fat, cholesterol, sodium, total carbohydrate, dietary fiber, sugars, Vitamin A, Vitamin C, calcium, and iron
What information is
required in the Nutrition Facts panel?
- Area on the food label that provides a list of specific nutrients obtained in one serving of food
- Serving Size
- Serving per container
What do the Daily
Values on the Nutrition Facts panel mean and how can they be used?
- General idea of how the nutrients in the food fit into the overall diet.
- Helps consumers see easily whether a food contributes "a little" or "a lot" of a nutrient
- Makes it easy to compare foods
What is the difference
between a health claim, nutrient claim, and structure-function claim?
- Health Claim - statements that cahracterize the relationship between a nutrient or other substance in a food and a disease or health-related condition
- Structure-Function Claim - statements that characterize the relationship between a nutrient or other substance in a food and its role in the body
- Nutrient Claim - statements that characterize the quanity of a nutrient in a food
What are the segments
of the digestive tract starting with the mouth and ending with the colon? Hint:
There are 5 organs
- small intestine
- large intestine
Name the accessory
organs that aid in digestion. Hint: there are 3 organs
What is peristalsis?
Contraction that squeezes food through the GI tract
What is segmentation?
- Shifts food back and forth along the GI tract
- allows contact with surface of small and large intestine and increase absorption
What is the role of
the pancreas in digestion?
- Endocrine Function - releases hormones to maintain blood glucose levels
- Exocrine Function - secretes digestive enzymes into the small intestine
What is secreted in
the stomach that aids with digestion?
- Acids, enzymes, and fluid = gastric juice
What is secreted in
the small intestine that aids with digestion?
What is the role of
the gallbladder in digestion?
- Receives bile from the liver via common hepatic duct
- Releases bile into small intestine via common bile duct
What is the role of
mucus in the stomach?
to protect the stomach cells from all the acids and enzymes that are in the stomach
digestive juices and enzymes assist with the breakdown of carbohydrate?
- Carbohydrates - salivary amylase, pancreatic amylase, sucrase, maltase, lactase
- Protein - hydrocholic acid, pepsin, trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase, dipeptidase, tripeptidase
- Fat - gastric lipase, pancreatic lipase, lipase
What are villi and
microvilli and what is their role in absorption?
- Villi - figerlike projections in the small intestine
- Microvilli - microscopic hairs on the cells of villi
- they recognize and select the nutrients the body needs and regulate their absorption
How are the lymphatic
system and circulatory system involved in the absorption of nutrients?
- Circulatory System - deliver nutrients wherever they are needed
- Lymphatic system - nutrients bypass the liver
What are the
following and what is their role in digestion and absorption: gastrin,
secretin, ghrelin, cholecystokinin (CCK)?
- Gastrin (hormone) - stimulates the stomach glands to secrete the components of hydrochloric acid.
- Secretin (hormone) - stimulates the pancreas to release its bicarbonate-rich juices.
- Ghrelin (protein) - produced by the stomach cells that enhances appetite and decreases energyexpenditure
- Cholecystokinin (hormone) - produced by the cells of the intestinal wall. target organ: gallbladder. response: release of bile and slowing of GI motility
What “errors” in the
digestive system cause the following problems: gastroesophageal reflux disease
/ acid reflux, peptic ulcers?
- Gastroesophageal reflux disease: chronic heartburn and stomach acid reflux
- Acid Reflux: lower esophageal sphincter doesn't close
- Peptic Ulcers: helicobacter pylori creates ulcers
What is H. Pylori and what GI disorder does it
A bacteria that causes ulcers
What is Celiac
disease and the only treatment for the disease?
- characterized by an abnormal immune response to a protein fraction in wheat gluten, causes severe damage to the intestinal mucosa and subsequent malabsorption
- Gluten-free diet
What are key problems
associated with diarrhea? Constipation?
- Diarrhea - sign of a more serious problem, lead to malnutrition, dehydration, potentially death
- Constipation - abdominal discomfort, headaches, backaches, and passing of gas
What are the parts of
Glycerol Backbone and Three fatty acids (palmitic, oleic, and stearic)
What does a fatty
acid look like?
a chain of carbon and hydrogen atoms with a carboxyl group at the alpha end and a methyl group at the omega end
What does saturation refer to in regard to fatty
- All the carbons on the fatty acid are bound to hydrogen
- solid at room temperature
- higher melting point
What is monounsaturated and polyunsaturated?
- Monounsaturated - has one double bond
- Polyunsaturated - has two or more double bonds, liquid at room temp, lower melting point
What does hydrogenation refer to? How does it
change a fat?
- a chemical process by which hydrogens are added to monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids to reduce the number of double bonds, making the fats more saturated (solid) and more resistant to oxidation (protecting against rancidity). Hydrogenation produces trans-fatty acids.
- It places the hydrogens on opposite sides.
Where is the double
bond in an omega-3 fatty acid? An omega-6 fatty acid?
- between the 3rd and the 4th carbon
- between the 6th and the 7th carbon
What do phospholipids
- help lipids move back and forth across cell membrane
- helps keep fats suspended in blood and body fluids
- constituents of cell membranes
- soluble in water and fat
What do sterols do?
- Activates testosterone and estrogen
- structural component of membranes
In what form is fat
primarily found in food (triglycerides, sterols, or phospholipids)?
What enzymes are
needed for fat digestion?
- Lingual lipase
- Gastric lipase
- Bile Acids
- Amino Acid
What is the role of
bile in fat digestion?
acts as an emulsifier, drawing fat molecules into the surrounding watery fluids
chylomicrons, VLDL, LDL, and HDL?
- Chylomicrons - they transport diet-derived lipids (mostly triglycerides) from the intestine (via the lymph system) to the rest of the body
- VLDL - deliver fatty acid made in the liver to the cells
- LDL - transport cholesterol to the cells, in some cases the arterial lining
- HDL - transport cholesterol from the body cells and deliver it to the liver for disposal
- ALL ARE LIPOPROTEINS
What are the
recommended blood levels of LDL and HDL? What are the health implications of
- LDL = <100mg/dL
- HDL = greater than or = to 60mg/dL
- heart disease
How are triglycerides
used in the body?
- Provides body with energy
- Insulates the body
What are the 2
essential fatty acids?
- linoleic acid
- linolenic adic
What is the
recommended intake for total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol?
- total fat = 20 - 35% of total kilocalories
- saturated fat = < 10% of total fat intake
- Cholesterol = < 300 mg
What are some
significant foods sources of saturated fat, omega-3 fatty acids, omega-6 fatty
acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, and cholesterol? What impact do these have
on blood lipid levels?
- saturated fat - Whole Milk, cream, butter, cheese; fatty cuts of beef adn pork; coconut, palm, and palm kernel oils. Raises blood lipid levels.
- omega-3 fatty acids - vegetable oils (canola, soybean, flaxseed); walnuts, flaxseeds; fatty fish (mackeral, salmon, sardines). Lowers blood lipid levels.
- omega-6 fatty acids - Vegetable oils (corn, sunflower, safflower, soybean, cottonseed); poultry fat; nuts, seeds; meats; poultry; eggs. Lowers blood lipid levels.
- monounsaturated fatty acids - olive oil, canola oil, peanut oil; avocados. Lowers blood lipid levels.
- cholesterol - eggs; milk products; meat, poultry, fish. Raises blood lipid levels.
What is a contaminant
that is of concern in fish? Which fish are likely to have significant amounts
of this contaminant?
- Tilefish, swordfish, king mackeral, marlin, shark
How does the chemical
structure of protein differ from fat and carbohydrates?
composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
What part of the
structure of an amino acid makes it unique?
How many amino acids
are there? How many essential amino acids are there?
What enzymes are used
in the digestion of protein?
What are the 8 major
functions of protein in the body?
- Provide structural and mechanical support
- maintain body tissues
- functions as enzymes and hormones
- help maintain acid base balance
- transport nurtrients
- assist the immun system
- serve as a source of energy when necessary
What is deamination? Where does it occur in the
body? What is produced? What is the fate of the products produced by
- when the amino acid pool reaches capacity the amino acids are broken down to their component parts for other uses