History midterm review - multiple choice.txt

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History midterm review - multiple choice.txt
2011-10-19 00:42:30
US History

Midterm Review - multiple choice
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  1. Salutary Neglect
    • Lenient enforcement of regulations (mainly trade) on the colonies
    • Navigation Acts, meant to make colonies trade only with Britain, loosely enforced
    • Colonies were allowed to govern themselves
    • Stamp Act and Sugar Act were a sharp change from salutary neglect to direct administration
  2. John Peter Zenger
    • New York newspaper editor
    • Charged with "seditious libel" for speaking against governor
    • Acquitted because the truth cannot be defamatory
    • Helped establish free-press principle
  3. George Whitefield
    • English clergyman, came to America in 1739
    • Preached to large audiences (men, women, free, slaves) in the colonies
    • Printed sermons in newspapers, fame preceded him wherever he went
    • Undermined established clergy (disrupted normal church attendance)
    • Connected colonies through common experience
  4. Opechancanough
    • Brother of Powhatan, replaced him as head of Powhatan confederacy in Virginia
    • English expansion encroached on his land and their livestock ruined it
    • Follower of a prophet that wanted to strike English before they got too big
    • Coordinated attack with the natives living in Jamestown - killed 350 of 1500
    • Began 20 year war, English eventually won and subordinated the confederacy
  5. Bacon's Rebellion
    • 1670's
    • Settlers wanted protected Indian lands in Virginia
    • Rallied behind Nathaniel Bacon, attacked Indians to make Berkeley (royal governor)look bad
    • Took fight to Jamestown, burned it and ousted Bacon
    • Bacon died before king could send troops, rebellion collapsed
    • Resulted in more conciliatory government, opened Indian land to settlement by freed servants
    • Race became more important than class (to unify rich and poor and avoid fighting)
    • Institution of race-based slavery
  6. Pontiac's Rebellion
    • After 7 yrs war, Indians were pushed into Ohio River valley
    • Upset over incursion on lands and trade prices with English raised (no French competition)
    • Neolin (prophet) called for resistance, had to unite and reject English culture
    • Pontiac fought in Ohio valley, killed 2000 settlers and took away many slaves
    • French had pulled out of the area after the 7 yrs war, so they couldn't help and the war was lost
  7. Stamp Act
    • England had war debt from 7 yrs war
    • Required stamps on printed materials - affected most colonists, difficult to pay
    • Responded with Stamp Act Resolves (Patrick Henry, VA)
    • Stamp Act Congress (9 colonies) approved resolves
    • Colonists opposed with protest, intimidation of stamp distributors, and non-importation acts
  8. Intolerable/Coercive Acts
    • Response to Boston Tea Party
    • 1. Boston Harbor closed until tea was paid off
    • 2. Local government limited; elected council replaced with appointed one, town meetings limited to once a year
    • 3. Quartering of British soldiers (could house themselves in private buildings)
  9. Feathering
    • "Extra legal" activity; physical punishment and humiliation
    • Colonists often did it to British customs officials
    • Paraded around town with sign of what they did to humiliate the person
  10. Non-importation agreements
    • Response to Stamp Act
    • Designed to block British exports to America (1/4 of all exports); London merchants would lobby for repeal
    • Turned colonial economy around; merchants reduced bloated inventories and colonies went from being in debt to exporting more than they imported
  11. Boston Tea Party
    • Tea Act designed to save East India Company from bankruptcy; made its tea the only legal tea in America and priced it under what smuggled tea cost
    • Colonists saw it as Parliament exercising right to tax colonies, also feared East India Company monopoly on colonial trade
    • Colonists prevent landing of tea, Governor Hutchinson refused to let ships leave
    • Colonists dress as Indians and destroy tea on ships, careful not to take any (to keep protest legitimate)
    • Destroyed 10k pounds worth of tea
  12. Redemptioners
    • German families that immigrated to America in 18th century
    • Sold themselves into indentured servitude to pay for passage to America
    • Not protected by British laws against indentured servitude abuses; had to negotiate contract before getting off ship rather than before getting on
    • This system made passage easy, but took advantage of the servants
    • Added to diversity of colonies as they settled in pockets in distinct ethnic groups
  13. Daughters of Liberty
    • 1st organized women's movement in colonies, gave women a political voice and united colonies
    • Part of the non-importation agreements
    • Women met to make home-spun cloth (rather than using British textiles)
    • Also came up with other homemade goods (to replace tea)
  14. Metacom's War
    • Marks end of large-scale native resistance in New England
    • Massasoit, leader of Wampanoag tribe in New England, dies and son Metacom (or King Philip) takes over
    • Metacom's brother Wampaseta dies and Metacom blames the English (who had been taking land)
    • Rallies warriors from different New England tribes to raid frontier towns
    • War lasts for two years, ends because of Metacom's death and attrition on both sides
  15. Virgin Soil Epidemic
    • Spread of disease through the Columbian exchange; no immunity because of isolated population
    • Primarily smallpox; Europeans affected by syphilis
    • Killed up to 90% pre-contact population
    • Led to mistrust of Europeans, less native opposition, loss of traditional and religious knowledge
  16. The Task System
    • System of slavery used in deep south (SC and GA)
    • Tasks designed to last all day for labor intensive crops (rice and indigo)
    • Incentive to work faster because after task was complete, they had the day to themselves
    • Resulted in high death rate; no natural increase in slave population
    • Slave culture was more distinctly African than in Chesapeake
    • Deep south was heavily reliant on continued slave trade to replace population
  17. The French and Indian War
    • Contested land in Ohio River country
    • Started after Washington and Indians attacked Fort Duquesne, killed French officer
    • French and Indians attacked British troops, Britain declared war on France
    • British kicked French out of Nova Scotia (ethnic cleansing) for fear of rebellion there
    • William Pitt took command, incorporated colonists to fight in war
    • French gave N American land to English, Spain gave Florida to English
    • Colonists held responsible for English war debt
    • Standing British army left in colonies
  18. Salem Witch Trials
    • Sparked by heavy Indian raids in New England
    • Young women, otherwise powerless, accused others of torturing them in spectral form
    • Witch was someone who inverts the natural order of things, violates covenant, makes deal with devil
    • Spectral evidence admitted in trials; 14 women and 5 men hanged (for not admitting they were a witch)
    • Ended after spectral evidence was no longer admitted, questioned whether guild could be legally determined in court
  19. Patroons
    • Large land grants given to settlers for bringing laborers to New Amsterdam
    • Meant to attract settlers to come to New Netherlands, but few did
  20. Ethnocentrism
    • Judging another culture through the lens of one's own culture
    • Noticable when Columbus came to New World
  21. Proclamation Line of 1763
    • Specified a western boundary that colonists weren't allowed to settle beyond
    • Attempt to prevent clashes with natives until land cessions could be negotiated
    • Aggravated colonists (land speculators and squatters) as oppression by Parliament
    • Caused natives to side with British because Americans ignored the line
  22. Boston Massacre
    • British customs officials based in Boston; led to many riots against them
    • British government sent two regiments to keep the peace
    • Upset people because soldiers competed for jobs in off-duty time
    • Laborers threw snowballs at soldiers; soldiers fired into crowd killing 5
    • John Adams defended Capt Thomas Preston; not enough evidence to convict him
  23. Thomas Hutchinson
    • MA Lieutenant Governor during Stamp Act Crisis; home was ransacked in protest, but most Americans didn't believe in this form of protest
    • Governor during Boston Tea Party; two sons were tea agents, refused to let tea ship leave harbor and refused to negotiate with colonists
  24. Townshend Acts
    • Proposed in 1767 by Charles Townshend, head of British Ministry
    • Imposed duties on many trade goods imported from Britain (not from foreign countries)
    • Used funds to pay for colonial officials; took away power of colonists to withhold salaries
    • Established American Board of Customs Commissioners
    • Resisted by non-importation agreements; divided merchants and artisans
    • Duties repealed (except tea tax) in 1770 by Lord North; other provisions remained in place
  25. Indentured Servitude
    • Labor contracted for several years; at the end of the contract, servant paid in land or goods
    • Servants were provided for during service (food and housing)
    • Reasons for servitude - social mobility, overcrowded in England, fleeing debt
    • Harsh environment dangerous for servants; early servants rarely lived to end of contract
    • As life expectancies got longer, farmers relied less on servants and more on slaves
  26. Columbian Exchange
    • Things brought to America to recreate settler's European lifestyle
    • Animals (horses, cattle, sheep, dogs, cats, rats, worms), plants (wheat, grapes, weeds), disease (smallpox, measles, flu, plague, cholera)
    • Things brought to Europe - plants (corn, potatoes, tobacco, sugar, rice, coffee, tomatoes), disease (syphilis), wealth (gold, silver, raw materials)
  27. Frontier of Inclusion
    • Practiced in New Spain - incorporated native labor (encomienda system), converted natives to Catholocism using missions, intimate relationships and intermarriage resulted in Mestizo and other mixed race categories
    • Practiced in New France - relied on native knowledge about fur, gain access to knowledge and protection through intermarriage (metie were mixed race children), missionaries lived among natives, natives became dependent on French goods as result of trade relationships
  28. The Restoration
    • After English Civil War (Puritans took over government), the Stuart Monarchy was restored in 1660
    • King Charles II established the Second Navigation Act; regulated trade with colonies
    • Period of growth and prosperity
    • Established "Restoration" colonies as proprietary colonies; NY, NJ, PA, DE, Carolinas
  29. Half Freedom
    • Unique civil liberty in Dutch New Amsterdam
    • This idea gave slaves control over their own personal lives (marriage, etc.)
  30. Monjerios
    • Part of a Spanish Mission that unmarried women and girls would live in, could be locked in at night so they didn't live near single men
    • Training school for young girls; separated from families to "unlearn" customary beliefs