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Alcohol contains how many cal/g? Standard drink provides how many grams of alcohol?
Production of alcoholic beverages. What two processes are used in alcohol production? Briefly describe what they do.
Fermentation: Yeast consumes carbs and converts them to alcohol & CO2.
Distillation: Separating the alcohol out of the product.
Alcohol absorption & metabolism. How is alcohol absorbed through the GI tract? Where is it mostly metabolized?
GI tract by simple diffusion.
Metabolized in liver.
Ethanol---(ADH, MEOS)-->Acetaldahyde-->Aldehyde (ALDH)--Acetyl-CoA.
Alcohol absorption & metabolism. MEOS increase/decrease as you drink? Stomach & liver metabolize what percentage of alcohol?
MEO increases (tolerance)
Metabolizes about 90% of alcohol.
Factors affecting alcohol metabolism?
What is the rate of alcohol metabolism?
Ethnicity, gender & age, tolerance, ADH & ALDH enzymes.
Rate: about 1 drink/hour. More than that causes BAC levels to rise.
Can reach intoxication and poisoning.
What percentage of adults consume alcohol?
What percent is dependent on alcohol?
5%, 9% of young adults (18-29)
Effects of alcohol abuse on nutritional status. What four areas?
Protein-energy malnutrition: Getting calories but little protein from alcohol.
Water soluable vitamin deficiencies: Thiamin, niacin, B-12, and folate.
Fat soluble vitamin deficiencies: A, D, E, K. Due to impairment of the liver & pancreas.
Mineral deficiencies: Ca, Mg, Zn, Fe.
Alcohol consumption during pregnancy & breastfeeding. What percent is born w/ alcohol complications?
Most severe damage occurs in the first how many weeks of pregnancy?
What does alcohol consumption cause in babies?
Does alcohol pass through breastmilk?
3% of babies
12-16 weeks of pregnancy.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), Fetal alcohol effects.
Yes, it passes through breastmilk.
Alcoholism. What are the risk factors and there percentages?
Genetics (50% dependant)
Age of onset drinking (starting early increase risks)
Mental Health (depression & anxiety increase risks)
Diagnosis & treatment of alcoholism. What percentage of people do not seek treatment?
What kind of therapy is used to decrease alcohol cravings?
75% do not seek treatment.
Behavioral therapy and medications.