Anatomy

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Author:
alannaheeres
ID:
110162
Filename:
Anatomy
Updated:
2011-10-19 01:25:14
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Brain
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Brain
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  1. Comprised of Thalamus & Hypothalamus
    Diencephalon
  2. Comprised of medulla, pons & midbrain
    Brainstem
  3. What comprises the protective coverings of the brain?
    • Bone
    • Meninges
    • Fluid
  4. Meninges in the brain are the same as around the _____ ____
    spinal cord
  5. What are the three layers of meninges in the brain?
    • Dura mater (superficial)
    • Arachnoid mater
    • Pia mater
  6. Continuation of spinal cord
    Ascending sensory tracts
    Descending motor tracts
    Medulla oblongata
  7. What centre: force & rate of heart beat
    diameter of blood vessels
    Cardiovascular center
  8. What centre: medullary rhythmicity area sets basic rhythm of breathing
    Respiratory center
  9. Ventral surface of Medulla Oblongata:
    large motor tract
    pyramids
    decussation of most fibers
    Ventral surface bulge
  10. Left cortex controls ____ muscles
    right
  11. Nucleus gracilis
    Nucleus cuneatus
    Sensory neurons
  12. What relays information to thalamus on opposite side of brain
    Sensory neurons
  13. White fiber tracts ascend and descend
    Pons
  14. Where is pontine nuclei located?
    In bulb of pons
  15. What does the middle cerebellar peduncles carry?
    Cortical inputs to the cerebellum
  16. Superior and inferior colliculi
    Extends from pons to diencephalon
    Midbrain
  17. Connects 3rd ventricle above to 4th ventricle below
    Cerebral aqueduct
  18. Midbrain:
    Helps controls subconscious muscle activity
    Substantia nigra
  19. Midbrain:
    Contain descending axons from cerebral cortex
    Cerebral peduncles
  20. Surrounds 3rd ventricle
    Superior part is thalamus
    Inferior part is hypothalamus
    Diencephalon
  21. Relays auditory and visual impulses, taste and somatic sensations
    Receives impulses from cerebellum and basal ganglia
    Thalamic nuclei
  22. Dozen or so nuclei located ventral to thalamus
    Hypothalamus
  23. Controls autonomic functions-cardiorespiratory
    Has direct and indirect influences on endocrine system
    Hypothalamus
  24. Plays an important role in emotions and behavior and learning and memory (anger, pleasure, feeding, drinking, and sleep)
    Hypothalamus
  25. Gray matter overlying white matter
    Cerebral cortex
  26. Cerebrum:
    Gyri
    Folds
  27. Cerebrum:
    Sulci or fissures
    Grooves
  28. What separates left and right cerebral hemispheres?
    Longitudinal fissure
  29. Band of white matter connecting left and right cerebral hemispheres
    Corpus callosum
  30. Each hemisphere is subdivided into ______
    lobes
  31. Control large automatic movements of skeletal muscles, such as those used for standing and walkin
    Basal Ganglia
  32. Caudate, Putamen and Globus palladus
    Basal Ganglia
  33. Medial fringe of brain, includes cortical and subcortical structures
    Limbic System
  34. Intense pleasure & intense pain
    Emotional brain
  35. Limbic System:
    What increases efficiency of memory?
    Strong emotions
  36. Speech and language:
    in frontal lobe
    formulates words for speech
    Broca's area
  37. Speech and Language:
    In temporal lobe
    For interpretation of spoken word
    Wernicke's area
  38. Speech and language:
    In Parietal lobe
    For understanding written words
    Angular gyrus
  39. Speech and Language:
    For writing
    Supramarginal gyrus
  40. 2 cerebellar hemispheres and vermis (central area)
    Folia and fissures
    Cerebellum
  41. Correct voluntary muscle contraction and posture based on sensory data from body about actual movements
    Sense of equilibrium
    Cerebellum
  42. Cerebellar Peduncles:
    Carries sensory information from spinal cord
    Inferior peduncles
  43. Cerebellar peduncles:
    Carries input from cerebral cortex & basal ganglia
    Middle peduncles
  44. Cerebellar Peduncles:
    Carries output to brain stem and thalamus
    Superior peduncles
  45. System of spaces filled with cerebrospinal fluid
    Ventricular System
  46. 80-150 ml (3-5oz)
    Clear liquid containing glucose, proteins, & ions
    Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  47. Function: Floats brain & softens impact with bony walls
    Mechanical protection of CSF
  48. Function: Optimal ionic concentrations for action potentials
    Chemical protection of CSF
  49. Function: Nutrients and waste products to and from bloodstream
    Circulation of CSF
  50. Origin of CSF:
    ependymal cells and capillaries
    Choroid Plexus
  51. Origin of CSF:
    What connects 3rd ventricle above to 4th ventricle below?
    Cerebral aqueduct
  52. What allows CSF to exit from the interior of the brain?
    1 median aperture & 2 lateral apertures
  53. Reabsorbed through arachnoid villi
    CSF
  54. Grapelike clusters of arachnoid penetrate dural venous sinus
    Arachnoid villi
  55. What is the reabsorption rate, production rate?
    20 ml/hour
  56. Branches from circle of Willis on base of brain (internal carotid and vertebral arteries)
    Arterial blood supply
  57. What penetrates tissue of brain?
    Vessels on surface of brain
  58. Brain uses what percentage of our bodies oxygen & glucose needs?
    20%
  59. What increases blood flow to an area in the brain?
    Activity
  60. How many minutes of 02 deprivation does permanent injury?
    4 minutes
  61. What happens after 4 minutes of O2 deprivation?
    Lysosomes release enzymes
  62. Protects cells from some toxins and pathogens
    Blood-brain barrier (BBB)
  63. Can proteins and antibiotics pass through BBB?
    No
  64. Can alcohol and anesthetics pass through BBB?
    Yes
  65. Seal together endothelial cells, continuous basement membrane, astrocyte processes covering capillaries
    Tight junctions
  66. What contributes to Circle of Willis (2)
    • Internal carotid arteries
    • Vertebral arteries
  67. Anastomotic network of arteries at base of brain
    Vertebral arteries
  68. How many pairs of cranial nerves are there?
    12
  69. Most originate from the brain stem and pass through foramina in the skull
    Cranial nerves
  70. Cranial Nerve V
    Trigeminal Nerve
  71. Muscles of mastication
    Cranial Nerve V - Motor portion
  72. Touch, pain, & temperature receptors of the face
    Cranial Nerve V- Sensory portion
  73. Name the 3 sensory portions of the Trigeminal Nerve.
    • Ophthalmic branch
    • Maxillary branch
    • Mandibular branch

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