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rapid, predictable, involuntary motor responses to simuli
Five essential components of a reflex arc:
- sensory neuron
- integration center
- motor neuron
What is the importance of reflex testing in a routine physical examination?
to test for spinal cord or brain damage
Somatic reflexes in which higher brain centers participate:
- plantar reflex
- corneal reflex
Can the stretch reflex be elicited in a plithed animal?
yes, as long as they have been plithed recently
Reflex arc of the patellar reflex:
- sensory receptors in the quadriceps muscle
- patellar tendon is tapped
- causes a stretch in the quads
- stimulates the length receptors
- fires an action potential in the sensory neuron which goes to the spinal cord (afferent)
- innervates the motor neuron (efferent) to the same muscle (receptor)
- Assuming the stimulus was strong enough motor neuron also fires an action potential
- causes a contraction in the quads
- resulting in a slight kick of the lower leg
- reflex arc is an example of negative feedback
Factor that increases the excitatory level of the spinal cord:
effect of simultaneous muscle activity in another body area
Factor that decreases the excitatory level of the mucles:
pupillary light reflex:
- prevents eye damage
protect the eye from damage and light
its used to be a withdrawl reflex to maintain balance and coordination
pupillary consensual response:
- protection for not having too much light in that eye
include those that involve stimulation of skeletal muscles
include those that activate smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, glands, involuntary parasympathetic actions.
- organ: bladder
- receptor stimulated: bladder; stretch receptors
- action: detrusor contracts and urethra relaxes allowing bladder to empty
- respond to stimuli arousing within the body
- doing sit ups; proprioceptors
- the "too full" sensation; visceral/ stretch
- reacts to stimulus in external environment; found close to body surface
- backing into a sun-heated iron railing; pain
- someone steps on your foot; pain
- reading a book; photoreceptor
- seasickness; eqilibrium-inner ear
Explain how sensory receptors act as transducers:
- they convert one form of signal to another form
- pain recepor -> chemical signal
something that rouses or incites to activity
What was demonstrated by the two-point discrimination test?
measures the smallest distance at which two points of contact can be felt
clustering of cutaneous sensory receptors; instead of being uniformly distributed
which cutaneous receptors are the most numerous?
simple pain receptors
appear to be more numerous
pain that is felt in a part of the body at a distant from the area of pathology
- gall bladder -> right inferior thorax
- kidneys -> lumbar
- appendix -> right lumbar; abdominal surface
Probable explanation of referred pain?
nerves carry the signal to other body parts so your brain interprets the pain from being from distal parts also
What region of the cerebrum interprets the kind and intensity of stimuli that cause cutaneous sensations?
somatosensory association area
Adaptation of sensory receptors:
when a stimulus is applied for prolonged period, the rate of receptor response slows and our conscious awareness of stimulus declines or is lost until some stimulus change occurs
Why is it advantageous to have pain receptors that are sensitive to all vigorous stimuli?
- they act as protection of us
- make us aware of our surroundings
- send messages to brain
Why is nonadaptability of pain receptors important?
if we adapted we would eventually pay no mind to pain
No cutaneous organs = very dangerous. Why?
- self harming incidences would increase
- you would be less efficient at maintaining body temperature
Type 1 Diabetes:
- pancreas doesnt work at all
- need to inject insulin
- symptoms progress more rapidly and can be worse
- usually diagnosed in children and young adults
- only 5% of the people with diabetes have type 1
Type 2 Diabetes:
- pancreas works but not as well as it should
- can be controlled by diet/ exercise
- sometimes need oral medication
- some need insulin injects
- symptoms include: excessive thirst and urination, weight loss, hunger, tiredness, blurred vision, decreased resistance to infection, dehydration
- most common
hormone used by the body to turn sugar, carbohydrates, and starch into energy
- found in fat cells
- overactive in those suffering from obesity
- people suffering from obesity are at higher risk for being diagnosed with type 2 diabetes
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