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Define metabolism, metabolic pathway, and intermediates.
Metabolism: network of chemical processes that maintain life.
Metabolic pathway: biochemical reactions that occur in progression from beginning to end.
Intermediates: Compounds formed in a pathway.
Define Anabolic & Catabolic.
Anabolic: pathways that build compounds.
Catabolic: pathways that break down compounds.
Energy for the cell. What is ATP and what is it broken down into?
ATP: Body's source of energy derived from catabolic reactions.
ATP is broken down to ADP or AMP to generate energy.
*ATP possess a high energy bond.
What are the stages of Catabolism? (3)
Stage 1: Digestion-breakdown of complex molecules to their component building blocks.
Stage 2: Conversion of building blocks to acetyl-CoA (Krebs cycle or CAC)
Stage 3: Metabolism acetyl-CoA to CO^2 and formation of ATP.
Oxidation-Reduction Reactions. Electrons are transferred through reactions from energy yielding compounds to oxygen.
Name whether it loses, gains oxygen/hydrogen.
Oxidized: Loses electron: gains O2 or loses Hydrogen.
Reduced: Gains electrons: Loses Oxygen or gains Hydrogen.
What are coenzymes? Name two and what they use.
Coenzymes: compounds that facilitate enzyme activity and carry electrons.
1) NAD: Uses niacin.
2) FAD: Uses riboflavin.
ATP Production from Carbs. What does Cellular Respiration do?
What is Aerobic/Anaerobic Respiration and what do they require?
When would you use anaerobic res?
Cellular Respiration: Oxidizes (removes electrons) food molecules to obtain energy (ATP).
Aerobic: (requires O2) respiration of 1 glucose molecule yields 30-32 ATP.
Anaerobic respiration: (not requiring O2) of 1 glucose molecule yields 2 ATP.
*You use anaerobic when sprinting, O2 does not meet the demand of your muscles's O2 needs.
Aerobic Cellular Respiration of Glucose.
4 steps. Know the steps, not how many of each is formed, etc.
1. Glycolysis (cytosol): 6 C, is oxidized (loses electrons) to form (2) molecules of (3 C) pyruvate.
2. Synthesis of acetyl-CoA (mitochondria): Pyruvate is oxidized (loses e-) and joined w/ CoA to form acetyl-CoA.
3. Citric Acid Cycle (CAC, Krebs) (mitochondria): Acetyl-CoA enters cycle producing NADH +H^+, FADH^2, and ATP.
4. ETS (electron transport system) (mitochondrial membrane): NADH +H^+, FADH^2, are oxidized to NAD+ and FAD to generate ATP.
Steps in Glycolysis. *2nd stage
What does it consume? (3)
What does it produce? (4)
- 2 NAD+
- 2 ADP +2P (net)
- 2 Pyruvates
- 2 ATP
- 2 NADH (electron carrier)
Krebs (CAC) (mitochondria) *3rd stage
What does it consume? (4)
What does it produce? (4)
- 2 CO2
- 1 ATP (GTP)
- 3 NADH
Electron Transport System (ETS)
*Final Stage (4th)
What does it do?
Is it the major sources of ATP?
Is it the only system that uses O2?
What are the minerals involved?
Passage of e- along a series of e- carriers.
Process called OOE is how energy is derived from NADH & FADH.
Yes, major source of ATP.
Yes, only system using O2.
Uses Cu (enzyme) & Fe (cytochromes)
How many TOTAL (ATP) is formed from each glucose molecule?
Glycolysis, CAC (Krebs, GTP, ATP)
Where does it occur?
What is Pyruvate converted to?
How many ATP is formed?
Occurs in cells w/ NO mitochondria.
Pyruvate --> lactic acid instead of acetyl-CoA.
2 ATP is formed.
ATP production from Fats.
What is lipolysis?
Are fatty acids energy dense?
What is critical for this process?
Triglycerides broken down into fatty acids & glycerol.
Yes, fatty acids are energy dense.
Carnitine, is critical. transport fatty acids from cytosol to mitochondria. Carnitine is produced from AAs.
Fat metabolism. What aids fat metabolism?
Carbs help aid fat metabolism.
What is Ketogenesis and does it occur in diabetes melitus?
When else can it occur?
High ketone bodies formed by incomplete fatty acid oxidation.
Occurs in diabetes melitus and during fasting or very low carb diets.