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4 types of chemical messengers (and following slide)
ex of paracrine messenger
Acts upon itself to stimulate more of itself
- messenger which acts locally
- ex: somatstatin and histomine
neural chemicals which act upon a neuron- secreted at synaptic cleft
secretes into blood- must have receptor cell
Name a chemical messenger that is used for a hormone and neurotransmitter
Name 4 examples of endocrine secretions
- digestive enzymes
Name 3 differences between the nervous and endocrine system and why.
- Mode of transport: Nervous travel via axon
- Endocrine via blood
- Speed: Nervous instant
- endocrine- dekayed seconds
- duration: Nervous- milliseconds
- endocrine- minutes days
List similarities of endocrine and nervous system
Hypothalmus and epithalmus
They work together with each other ex: hypothalmus and adreanal gland at the level of adrenal medulla and releases epinephrine and norepinephrine
Who has a long half-life?
the amount of time it takes for a half dose of chemical to be removed from circulation
lipid soluable hormones attach to proteins
Explain whtat the body does if it experiences hypocalcemia
The low calcium levels in the blood stimulates the endocrine system to release PTH parathyroid hormone, which travels to the osteoclasts... which increase CA+ in blood
Hormones from the thyroid are regulated how?
By the hypothalmus and anterior pit.
What controls the pituitary gland and how?
the hypothalmus, by hormones
Name 2 hormones the hypothalmus secretes
ADH and oxytocin
hypothalmus and adrenal gland work together @ what level, to release what 2 messengers?
Patterns of hormone production-- add more
1.Constant hormone prodcution everyday Thyroid
2. Release of a hormone in a short period of time-- STRESS. Ex: insulin and epinephrine
3. Cyclic, female reproductive hormones Ex: oxytocin for child birth
Most hormones are secreted constantly or not constantly and are part of negative or positive feedback
- not constantly
- Negative feedback
Name 3 ways in which hormones are regulated
? Dr. Truong
1. The action of a substance, other than a hormone, which acts upon an endocrine gland. (Neurons?)
2. Neural control of and endocrine gland
3. The secretory control of one endocrine gland by the hormones or neurotransmitters of another endocrine gland
Explain positive feedback
The secretions from the anterior pit, act upon the target endocrine cell which then has an effect upon the ant. pit to make more tropic hormones
Explain negative feedback
The target endocrine gland has a negative feedback upon the anterior pit. and the hypothalmus to stop the tropic hormones
In a cell membrane, it it called a binding cite or a receptor cite?
The rate at which receptors are synthesized are decreased because they are exposed to a certain hormone numerous times
The rate at which receptors are synthesized, which increases the sensitivity to that hormone.
FSH increases LH receptors in the ovaries. Therefore the ovaries are more sensitive to LH.
Name thrree things about lipid soluable proteins
where do they bind?
long or short half-life?
Bind to nuclear receptors. Albumin-- located in cytoplasm??
Are dissolved in cytoplasm or nucleus receptor, which causes transcription and translation, **mRNA
Long(er) than water soluable.
Water soluable lipids, long or short half-life?
Where do they bind?
What do they do?
Have short half life.
Channels found in plasma membrane,
Alter G proteins, cause reaction in intercellular enzynmes
Membrane bound receptors.
G protein's 3 subunits. Which one is different?
What else does it activate?
Alpha- (biggest) GTP (not sure??) DetachesCan inhibit or activate adenalate cyclase (AC)This catalyzes ATP to cAMP. cAMP opens ion channels to depolarization.
Ca+, DAG (diacylglycerol) and IP3 (inositol triphosphate)
Name the 3 G proteins
- Alpha- (biggest) GTP (not sure??) Detaches
- Can inhibit or activate adenalate cyclase (AC)
- This catalyzes ATP to cAMP. cAMP opens ion channels to depolarization.