Ch 17

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  1. 4 types of chemical messengers (and following slide)


    ex of paracrine messenger
    Acts upon itself to stimulate more of itself

    • messenger which acts locally
    • ex: somatstatin and histomine
  2. Neurotransmitter

    neural chemicals which act upon a neuron- secreted at synaptic cleft

    secretes into blood- must have receptor cell
  3. lignads
    chemical signals
  4. Name a chemical messenger that is used for a hormone and neurotransmitter
  5. Name 4 examples of endocrine secretions
    • Milk
    • sweat
    • saliva
    • digestive enzymes
  6. Name 3 differences between the nervous and endocrine system and why.
    • Mode of transport: Nervous travel via axon
    • Endocrine via blood

    • Speed: Nervous instant
    • endocrine- dekayed seconds

    • duration: Nervous- milliseconds
    • endocrine- minutes days
  7. List similarities of endocrine and nervous system
    Hypothalmus and epithalmus

    They work together with each other ex: hypothalmus and adreanal gland at the level of adrenal medulla and releases epinephrine and norepinephrine
  8. HAlf life

    Who has a long half-life?

    the amount of time it takes for a half dose of chemical to be removed from circulation

    lipid soluable hormones attach to proteins
  9. Explain whtat the body does if it experiences hypocalcemia
    The low calcium levels in the blood stimulates the endocrine system to release PTH parathyroid hormone, which travels to the osteoclasts... which increase CA+ in blood
  10. Hormones from the thyroid are regulated how?
    By the hypothalmus and anterior pit.
  11. What controls the pituitary gland and how?
    the hypothalmus, by hormones
  12. Name 2 hormones the hypothalmus secretes
    ADH and oxytocin
  13. hypothalmus and adrenal gland work together @ what level, to release what 2 messengers?

  14. Patterns of hormone production-- add more

    1. Chronic

    2. Acute

    3. Episodic
    1.Constant hormone prodcution everyday Thyroid

    2. Release of a hormone in a short period of time-- STRESS. Ex: insulin and epinephrine

    3. Cyclic, female reproductive hormones Ex: oxytocin for child birth
  15. Most hormones are secreted constantly or not constantly and are part of negative or positive feedback
    • not constantly
    • Negative feedback
  16. Name 3 ways in which hormones are regulated

    ? Dr. Truong
    1. The action of a substance, other than a hormone, which acts upon an endocrine gland. (Neurons?)

    2. Neural control of and endocrine gland

    3. The secretory control of one endocrine gland by the hormones or neurotransmitters of another endocrine gland
  17. Explain positive feedback
    The secretions from the anterior pit, act upon the target endocrine cell which then has an effect upon the ant. pit to make more tropic hormones
  18. Explain negative feedback
    The target endocrine gland has a negative feedback upon the anterior pit. and the hypothalmus to stop the tropic hormones
  19. In a cell membrane, it it called a binding cite or a receptor cite?
    Receptor cite
  20. Down regulation
    The rate at which receptors are synthesized are decreased because they are exposed to a certain hormone numerous times
  21. Up regulation

    The rate at which receptors are synthesized, which increases the sensitivity to that hormone.

    FSH increases LH receptors in the ovaries. Therefore the ovaries are more sensitive to LH.
  22. Name thrree things about lipid soluable proteins

    where do they bind?


    long or short half-life?
    Bind to nuclear receptors. Albumin-- located in cytoplasm??

    Are dissolved in cytoplasm or nucleus receptor, which causes transcription and translation, **mRNA

    Long(er) than water soluable.

    Thyroid hormones
  23. Water soluable lipids, long or short half-life?

    Where do they bind?

    What do they do?
    Have short half life.

    Channels found in plasma membrane,

    Alter G proteins, cause reaction in intercellular enzynmes
  24. Membrane bound receptors.
    G protein's 3 subunits. Which one is different?

    What else does it activate?
    Alpha- (biggest) GTP (not sure??) DetachesCan inhibit or activate adenalate cyclase (AC)This catalyzes ATP to cAMP. cAMP opens ion channels to depolarization.

    Ca+, DAG (diacylglycerol) and IP3 (inositol triphosphate)
  25. Name the 3 G proteins
    • Gamma
    • Beta
    • Alpha- (biggest) GTP (not sure??) Detaches
    • Can inhibit or activate adenalate cyclase (AC)
    • This catalyzes ATP to cAMP. cAMP opens ion channels to depolarization.
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Ch 17
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