hematology final 2

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hematology final 2
2011-10-19 16:47:11
hematology final

hematology final 2
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  1. Hematocrit or packed cell volume (PCV) is used to determine
    Percentage amount of red blood cells in whole blood.
  2. How long do you set timer for capillary tubes
    5 minutes
  3. Hipocrit spin set at
    11,000 rpm
  4. In a lab practical how many times should you run a hct
    at least twice and an average of the two should be taken
  5. hematocrit reference range for male
  6. hematocrit reference range for female
  7. hematocrit reference ranges for infant child
  8. Sources of error for hct
    • Improper mixing of the sample prior to testing, Improper sealing can result in a decreased hematocrit, Irregularly shaped red blood cells may cause plasma to be trapped in the red cell layer. The trapping of plasma
    • may falsely elevate the hematocrit by 1-3%
  9. hematocrit reference ranges for newborn
  10. Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate measures
    the settling of RBC from plasma left undisturbed for one hour
  11. Excess proteins; globulin levels (inflammatory response) in the plasma lowers the RBC’s zeta potential bringing the RBC’s close and they clump together which they fall faster yielding
    a higher sedimentation rate
  12. ESR reference range males
    0-10 mm/hr
  13. ESR reference range females
    0-20 mm/hr
  14. Hg Reference Ranges males
    13.0-18.0 g/dL
  15. Hg Reference Ranges females
    11.0-16.0 g/dL
  16. Hg Reference Ranges children
    10.0-14.0 g/dL
  17. Hg reference ranges newborn
    14.0-23.0 g/dL
  18. Hg spectrophotometer set
    540 nm
  19. How much of Drabkin is added to sample
    5 ml
  20. 5 ml of drabkin is added to how much of blood
    20 microliters
  21. After mixture of drabkin and blood, mixture should sit for __ before taking measurement in the spectrophotometer
    15 minutes
  22. what is the formula to measure the abs value
    (Abs unknown/known abs std ) x known std concentration
  23. Normal diff PMN
  24. Normal diff bands
  25. Normal diff lymphocytes
  26. normal diff monocytes
  27. Normal diff eosinophil
  28. Normal diff basophils
  29. MCV =
    hct/rbc count x 10
  30. MCH =
    Hg/rbc x 10
  31. MCHC =
    Hg/hct x 100
  32. MCV normal range
    80-100 fl
  33. MCH normal values
    28-34 pg
  34. MCHC normal ranges
    32-36 g/dl
  35. MCV stands for what, is the measurement of ___ and units used
    Mean cell volume, average volume in a RBC, femtoliters
  36. MCH stands for what, the measurement of ___, and units used
    Mean cell hemoglobin, average weight of hemoglobin in a RBC, picogram
  37. The Leuko-TIC diluting fluid lyses the RBCS fixes the _______ of the WBCs.
  38. What is the name of the stain in the Leuko-Tic that stains nuclei
    Gentian violet
  39. What is the amount of blood in the capillary tube being placed into the Leuko-Tic
    20 microliters
  40. What is the time interval being placing the blood in the Leuko-tic system and then charging the hemocytometer
    12 minutes, upon inserting 20 ul capillary tube wait 10 minutes, then charge hemocytometer and place in moist chamber 2 minutes
  41. WBC count (mm3) =
    average # of cells counted in 4 large squares x 20/ (4 mm2 x 0.1 mm)
  42. WBC count (mm3) simplified =
    average # of cells counted in 4 large squares x 50
  43. easier simply way to average WBC on hemocytometer, take average of the A &B of hemocytometer and x ____/L
  44. RBC Indices are helpful in classifying
  45. Important reason for doing peripheral Blood Smear Evaluation
    learning normal cells correctly is to be able to RECOGNIZE abnormal cells
  46. Most serious error in peripheral Blood Smear Evaluation
    Calling abnormal cells normal.
  47. The presence of immature cells in peripheral blood is
    not normal
  48. Avoid counting to close to the edge because
    Monocytes and lymphocytes tend to migrate to the edge as the smear dries
  49. Anisocytosis:
    is size -microcytes, macrocytes
  50. Poikilocytosis:
    target cells, Sickle cells
  51. When a certain percentage of cells shows prevalent morphological characteristics
    Slight (25%) ,Moderate (50%), Marked (>75%) 1+, 2+, 3+ ...
  52. automated machines count nRBC as WBC and if 5 or more nRBC are counted then an corrected count must be made
    Corrected WBC = WBC Count X 100/(100 + # of NRBCs)
  53. Normal values for platelets uL and L
    • 150,000 - 440,000 platelets/ μL
    • 150-450 x 109/L
  54. ESR 3 phases
    • Phase 1 – Aggregation
    • Phase 2 - Sedimentation
    • Phase 3 - Packing phase
  55. Lower ESR would be _____ concentration of RBC
  56. Higher ESR would be _____ concentration of RBC
  57. At the end of the hour, read distance in millimeters between
    plasma meniscus and top of sedimentation of RBC __mm/hr
  58. Automated ESR methods can be read
    20-30 minutes instead of the 1 hour for manual method
  59. what is a reticlocyte?
    Immature non-nucleated red cells containing residual RNA
  60. Wright’s stain is a supravital stain and uses
    New methylene blue, brillant cresyl blue
  61. Number of reticulocyte count is
    # of retics counted per 1000 rbcs divided by 10
  62. Name a few RBC inclusions
    Pappenhemier bodies, Howell Jolly bodies, Heinz bodies
  63. What is the principle of hemoglobin S
    Hemoglobin S is insoluble when combined with a reducing agent, crystal form and cloudy appearance is observed
  64. What is the hemoglobin in most individuals
  65. To confirm the presence of Hemoglobin S
    Hemoglobin electrophoresis, initial rapid test is nonspecific. Does not differentiate between carriers of the disease or the trait
  66. What are the stains used in the Stain II Wright Giemsa
    methylene blue dye with eosin in a methanol diluent
  67. Basic components of the
    cell, such as hemoglobin or certain inclusions or granules, will unite with the acidic portion of the stain
    eosin, shades of pink and red
  68. Acidic cell components, such as nucleic acids, reactive cytoplasm, etc. take up the basic dye components
    methylene azure, and stain blue or purple
  69. Peripheral blood smear is placed in the Wright-Giemsa for ___ seconds.
  70. After placed in the stain, slide is placed in DI water for
    20 seconds
  71. Plasma – liquid component
    55% of blood cell volume
  72. Cellular component
    45% of blood cell volume
  73. Physiologic differences in “normal values” may occur due to
    age, gender, race and geographic location
  74. newborns when compared to adults have
    Higher RBC, WBC and hemoglobin
  75. Drabkin lyses RBC's and releases
  76. Fe+2 of the Hb molecule oxidized by potassium ferricyanide to Fe+3
    to methemoglobin
  77. Methemoglobin combines with potassium cyanide
  78. Plot Absorbance in nanometers (n ) on the
    y-axis (ordinate)
  79. Plot Hemoglobin concentration in grams per deciliter(g/dL) on the
    x-axis (abscissa)
  80. Rule of Three
    Hemoglobin X 3 = Hematocrit +/- 3
  81. What is Quality Control
    Ensure that reliable test results are obtained, Detect potential problems within the testing system, Allow correction of the problem before patient results are affected
  82. What is a Compound microscope
    Two sets of lenses, eyepiece and objective
  83. Reticulocyte reference ranges
    • Adults 0.5-1.5%
    • Newborns 0.5-8%
  84. ESR is measuring the fact that
    RBC being heavier than plasma, settling out.
  85. list potential sources of error in ESR
    apparatus not 90 degrees, air bubble in tube, blood not at the 0 mm mark, vibratoins, old blood.
  86. Sickle cell disease is homozygous for
  87. Sickle cell trait is heterozygous for
  88. hemoglobin S reference ranges
    • Turbid (+)
    • transparent (-)
  89. Sources of error for hemoglobin
    Inadequate amount of blood added to the system, cannot differentiate between trait and sickle cell anemia disease.
  90. Reticulocyte count is a measure of
    erythropoietic activity of the BM
  91. to do a reticulocyte count you take 5 drops of blood with 5 drops of ______ stain
    new methylene blue
  92. for question 91, in order to be called retics what type of stain would be used
  93. The 5 drop blood to 5 drop stain is left for ____ minutes, remove a capillary tube and place ____ drop on the slide. Use another slide to ___ the blood creating a _____ edge
    10, one drop, smear, feathered.
  94. How to do retic count you count _____ and in the number separately count ______
    500 RBC, retics on piece of paper.
  95. Perform this procedure twice and /10 = # retics per 1000 RBCs
    ex 17 retics for 500 rbcs 18 retics for 500 rbcs = 35/10 = 3.5%
  96. Sources of error for retics
    Couting artifacts as retics, falsely elevating #, slide smear to thick falsely elevating count per 500 cells.
  97. quality control
    3 slides 2 as a comparison and 1 control
  98. Principle of plate counts
    Assess the circulating platelets in the peripheral blood
  99. Platelets are counted in the inside cross of the hemocytometer and that # is multiplied by
    1,000. This is different than a 5 field diff count because you multiply that # x 15,000 or 20,000.
  100. Sources of error in platelet count