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What did Rousseau (1778) say in regard to human kind?
"Man is by nature good and only intitutions make him bad"
What was Hobbes (1588-1679) view of humankind?
"Man is by nature solitary, poor, nasty and brutish." "If not for the civilizing constraints of society there would a war against all"
What recent debate might be held regarding what sort of theory should be used in social psychology?
Scientifically testable vs socially good
what does idiosyncratic mean?
characterisitic peculiar to individual or group
What are the four approaches to social theorizing?
- Cognitive perspectives
- Learning perspectives
- Motivational perspectives
- Biological perspectives
What emphasis does a biological perspective of social theorizing have?
Emphasis on evolutionary past and genetic predisposition
What 4 levels of analysis does Doise use in his explanation of social psychology?
Intrapersonal, interpersonal, intergroup, societal level
What is the strength of using experiments as a research method in social psychology?
experimenter can 1. infer cause 2. rule out other causes 3. analyze complex phenomen
What did Bandura's (1965) classic Bobo doll study do?
See if exposure to violence leaded to increased aggression
What did Freud draw attention to?
1. Study of the unconscious 2. Study of sexuality 3. Developmental aspects of personality
What is the major difference in Freud and Hobbes beliefs about humans pleasure seeking instincts?
- Hobbes claimed these instincts were curbed by external restraints
- Freud believed the external restrains of society were internalized during childhood and may later return to cause conflict between instincts and demands of society
What are the three core concepts in psychoanalysis?
ID, EGO, SUPEREGO
What is ID
- primitive part of psyche that contains most basic of urges
- main concern is to gain sexual pleasure
- demands satisfaction now not later, ignores consequences
What is the superego?
- Moral policeman
- Internalized rules of society
- Powerful and gives out punishment if rules are broken resulting in intense anxiety, guilt, self-reproach
What is EGO?
- works to satisfy reality principle
- tries to satisfy ID and societal demands
Why are defense mechanisms needed according to psychoanalysis concepts?
ID is repressed most of the time, but sometimes outlets are found other ways and the impulses re-emerge. Defense mechanisms are needed to avoid this happening
Defense mechanism: displacement?
forbidden impulse rechannelled into a safer course
defense mechanism: rationalization?
repressed impulse breaks through into consciousness
defense mechanism: reaction formation?
where original wish is supplanted with the opposite
defense mechanism: projection?
where forbidden urges are projected onto others
defense mechanism: isolation?
awareness of memories but not emotions
What are the psychosexual stages of development?
Oral (0-2), Anal (2-4), Phallic (4-6). Latency (6-12), Genital (12+)
What is an oedipus complex and when does it occur?
- When a boy wants to sexually possess his mother & so hates father. Castration anxiety. Boy gives up on mother and relates with father.
- Occurs in phallic stage (4-6)
What is the electra complex and when does it occur?
During the phallic stage (4-6) a girl develops 'penis envy' and turns to father, hates mother, anxiety over desires resolved by identifying with mother
Problem with freud psychosexual stages of development?
uses restricted sample, never studies children, concepts little more than metaphors so not easily tested, little experimental evidence, ideas unable to falsified
What did Eysenck (1985) study to refute Freuds claim that difficulties at any stage of psychosexual development would later affect behaviour
Relation between thumb sucking and children who weren't breast fed, no relation
What example shows that freuds data is more appropriately explained through other processes?
Authoritarian personalities may be harsh and say maybe to harming minorities, however the aggression they display has been shown to be caused by observational learning as opposed to redirection of repressed impulses (Bodo doll study)
What are the three components of attitudes?
Cognitive, affective, behavioural
What are the three main techniques of attitude measurement?
- The bogus pipeline
- Electromyography (EMG)
- The lost letter technique
What is EMG
Electromyography (cacioppo et al. 1986) measuresactivity of facial muscles (happy = aggree with attitude) (angry = disagree with attitude)
What does the bogus pipeline developed by Jones and Sigall do?
Respondants believe the machine they are attached to can measure minute changes in their muscles. The thought being that they would be less likely to give socially desirable attitudes as opposed to their own.
What study is the source of controversy for claiming that attitudes do not measure behaviour?
LaPiere (1934) studied racist attitudes and behaviour - face to face, letter
The more general the attitude the more ........ it is to predict behaviour (Azjen 1996)
What does Azjen and Fischbein believe we must consider in the demonstrating the relationship between attitudes and behaviour (Theory of Reasoned Action)?
- 1. the intention to behave
- 2. the consquences of behaviour
Himmelweit (1990) found that over15years the attitude to capital punishment did not change.. what does this show in relation to attitudes?
Attitudes are relatively stable
Himmelweit (1990) found that attitudes towards PM Thatcher altered following the onset of the Falkland war showing what?
Attitudes can change
What is cognitive dissonance?
inconsistency between attitude and behaviour may lead to this uncomfortable state
What is an example that may lead to cognitive dissonance?
- Someone has a conservative attitude towards drugs but partakes in them... behaviour is irrevocable so attitude changes.
- Chances of winning bet? Those who placed bet more confident of winning
- Behaviour changes --> attitude changes
What factors according to Smith and Mackie 1995 can change attitudes?
If the source is credible, trustworthy, attractive, likeable, sunny days
When can fear work (as an emotional appeal) to change an attitude?
- the threatened outcome is believable
- the recommended change is attainable
- the induced emotion is motivating and not debilitating
By teaching teenagers to use arguments such as "I'd be a real chicken if I smoked just to impress you" Mcalister 1982 was encouraging what?
Attitude resilience - to show we're not at the mercy of those who are trying to infuence us, to avoid attitude change counter arguments are effective
What is the attribution theory in social psychology?
The idea that people's perception of an event affect what they do and how they feel
Hieder 1958 proposed what final distinction to measuring attributions?
Internal vs external
What dimensions did Weiner 1986 use to measure attributions?
- Internal ---- external (locus)
- Stable ---- Unstable (stability)
- Contrallable ---- Uncontrolable (contrallability)
According to Peterson and Seligman (1988) what is the difference in attribution style between pessimists and optimists?
- Optimists explain negative events using external facotrs
- Pessimists explain negative events with theyr own qualities
Marital distress is caused by parteners attributing the negative behaviour of their partner to what?
What was Petersons findings in relation to the health of pessimists?
Experience poorer health later in life --> how we interpret events in our early life affects us later
Why do we use attributions (motivational basis?)
Functions to control 1. self esteem 2. control
Why do people derogate others who are victims of negative events?
Control function of attributions --> used to maintain the belief that the negative event will not happen to themselves (so they can behave to avoid negative outcomes)
What are the two main theories at the intrapersonal leve of attribution research?
- Correspondence Inference (Jones & davis 1967)
- Covariation and Configuaration (Kelley 1967)
When making an attribution about a next door neighbours behaviour what might you consider before making an attribution? (3 sources)
- Consistency (is he always hostile to you?)
- Consensus (are other people hostile towards you?)
- Distinctiveness (is he hostile to other people?)
What are the two major effects of interpersonal attributions?
- the 'actor observer effect' (cause of their actions to external, cause of other to internal eg slipping)
- the 'self serving bias' (take credit for success but external attributions for failure)
What does Miller 1984 show about societal level attributions by western and non western cultures?
- Western culture - attribute behaviour dispostionally
- Non western culture - environmental explainations for behaviour
Why is proximity important accordingn to Zajonc?
Exposure effect- the more exposure to a stimulus the more appealing it becomes
When may the exposure effect of Zajonc not have an effect?
When a person is considerable private, repeated exposure may then lead to dislike
emotional arousal leads to what when forming relationships?
emotionally aroused people find others more attractive
According to Schacter and Singer 1962 emotional arousal leads people to find others more attractive because?
When emotionally aroused people look around to find something to attribute their arousal to
Men prefer what physical characteristics in women?
- childlike profile, big eyes, small nose, small chin
- medium bust, hips waist and bottom
- age and height: younger and smaller
Women prefer what physical characteristics in men?
- Expression of dominance, small eyes, square jaw, thrusting chin
- Vshaped, broad shoulders tapering into smaller bottom
- Age and height: older and taller
What is the only universal feature of beauty according to Hess 1975?
Reis 1997 found people are attracted to others who are .......... to themselves
What are the important determinants in similarity that may lead to greater attraction?
Attitudes, values, activity similarities
When is the most serious threat to mental health of a survior following the death of a parnter (Stroebe 1988)
A year after
Loneliness is found to be overcome more easily when..... (Cutronal 1982)
People judge it to arise from transitory, controllable uases
What is social facilitation?
the idea that simple task performance (esp when task is well practised) improves in the presence of others
De Castro 1991 deomstrated what in regard to eating and social facilitation?
The larger the crowd the more we eat at weekends
When can the presence of others be detrimental?
Schmitt 1986 found that complex task performance decreases in the presence of others
What is the Dirve Theory of Facilitation? (Zajonc 1980)
- The presence of others leads to increased arousal
- Increased arousal leads to increased dominant response
- If the dominant response is approriate performance is enhanced
What is the diffusion of responsibility? (Latane and Darley)
As group size increases individual responsibility decreases
What is the Deindividuation theory (Postmes & Spears 1998)?
The idea that when surrounded by others people lose self awareness and this disinhibits impulses (usually kept in control)
Johnson et al 1979 foudn that anonymity leads to aggression which shows what in regard to self-awareness?
A decrease in self-awareness leads to an increase in antisocial behaviour
What is bonafide?
Used to describe the person in an experiment who is unaware of the purpose of the experiment - presented in good faith, authentic
What did Asch study and show?
Pairs of cards of different lengths (1 bonafide, the rest confederates who cgave the wrong answers) - 75% went along with the majority (conformity)
The Urban Guerilla called Tania shows an example of what?
She was kidnapped by the SLA became influenced by them and later denounced parents and critised the US imperialism of oppressing people - influence can change beliefs
What experiment shows the expectancy of role?
Zimbardo - stanford prison
Milgram did an experiment asking people obey (teacherrole, student role attached to bogus electrical shock) what did this demonstrate?
People will act to obey authority indicating when people are told to hurt someone they will
What is an early explanation for prejudice?
The personality of the person
what is indictive of the authoriarian personality?
deferential to authority, overbearing and hostile to those seen as inferior
What did Rubenstein 1995 show about authoritarianism affecting prejudicce?
High authoritarian personailty israeli's opposed Arab autonomy (independence to freedom), opposed handing back occupied territory (opp for low authoritarian)
what is RCT
realistic conflict theory - attitudes and behaviour of ingroup members towards outgroup reflect objective interests of ingroup
What is an objective conflict of interest? what does this lead the groups to become?
Eg prizes may be introduced for winners between two groups