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Rebirth of learning and the arts.
Prompted followers to challenge accepted ways of thinking about God and salvation.
- The Earth was in the center of the universe.
- Christianity taught that God put Earth in the center.
A major change in European thought, starting in the mid-1500s, in which the study of the natural world began to be characterized by careful observation and the questioning of accepted.
- Studied planetary movements and reasoned that the stars, earth, and the other planets revolved around th sun.
- Came up with heliocentric theory.
The idea that the earth and the other planets revolve around the sun.
- Recorded movements of the planets.
- Danish astronomer.
- Brahe's assistant.
- Realized certain mathematical laws govern planetary motion.
- Proved Copernicus' ideas right with his mathematical principles.
- Planets travel in elliptical orbits.
- Was threatened by the Catholic Church not to defend Copernicus' ideas.
- Italian scientists.
- Spent last part of his life under house arrest and had to work in secret.
- 1. Observation
- 2. Problem/Question/Hypothesis
- 3. Test in an experiment or on the basis of data.
- 4. Analyze and interpret the data.
- English statesman and writer.
- Believed a better understanding of the world would create practical knowledge to improve people's lives.
- Critized ancient thinkers for relying on conclusions of Aristotle.
- (Experimental Method)
- Experiment then draw conclusions.
- French scientist.
- Created analytical geometry.
- Relied on mathematics and logic.
- "I think, therefore I am."
- English scientist.
- Brought together all the breakthroughs into one theory of motion.
Law of Universal Gravitation
- Every object in the universe attracts every other object.
- The degree of attraction depends on the mass of the objects and the distance between them.
- Dutch eyeglass maker.
- Created first microscope.
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
- Dutch drapery merchant and amateur scientist.
- Examined bacteria and red blood cells for the first time with a microscope.
- One of Galileo's students.
- Created first mercury barometer.
- German physicist.
- Made first thermometer to use mercury in glass.
- Showed water freezing at 32o.
- Swedish astronomer.
- Created scale for mercury thermomemter in 1742.
- Freezing at 0o.
- Ancient Greek physician.
- Studied anatomy of pigs and other animals.
- European doctors trusted his work and didn't challenge it.
- Flemish physician.
- Dissected human corpses and published his observations illegally.
- British physician.
- Introduced vaccine to prevent smallpox using cowpox.
- Challenged Aristotle's idea that the physical world consists of four elements.
- Created Boyle's law which explains how the volume, temperature, and pressure of gas affect each othe.r
An 18th-century European movement in which thinkers attempted to apply the principles of reason and the scientific method to all aspects of society.
- Believed people were wicked and selfish.
- Believed in a social contract where people gave up their rights for an absolute monarchy for control and order.
Hobbes' book discussing his version of a social contract.
The agreement by which people define and limit their individual rights, thus creating an organized society or government.
- People were capable of learning from experience.
- Humans were born with 3 natural rights: life, liberty, and property.
- Only purpose of a government was to protect these rights.
- Inspired liberty struggles in Europe and the Americas.
Group of social thinkers in France during the Enlightenment.
5 Core Beliefs of the Philosophes
- Created many enemies with his use of satire.
- "I do not agree with a word you say but will defend to the death your right to say it."
Baron de Montesquieu
- Seperation of Powers.
- Built foundation for checks and balances.
Jean Jacques Rousseau
- Believed civilization corrupted people's natural goodness.
- Supported direct democracy.
- Believe a social contract was an agreement between of free individuals to create a society and a government.
Cesare Bonesana Beccaria
- An accused person should get a speedy trial.
- Torture should never be used.
- The seriousness of a crime should determine the degree of a punishment.
- Capital punishment should be abolished.
- Believed that governments' should seek the greatest good for the greatest number of people.
- Wrote A Serious Proposal to the Ladies addressing the lack of educational oppurtunites for women.
- Critized that if a government can survive without an absolute monarchy then why do marriages have to.
- Wrote an essay called A Vindication of the rights of Woman.
- Disagreed with Rousseau that women and men should have an equal education.
- Encouraged women to join fields of medicine and politics.
Emilie de Chatelet
- Translated Newton's work from Latin to French.
- Aristocrat trained as a mathematician and physicist.
3 Major Impacts of the Enlightenment
- Belief in Progress
- A More Secular Look
- Importance of the Individual
Social gatherings of intellectuals and artists, like those held in the homes of wealthy women in Paris and other European cities during the Enlightenment.
Created the Encyclopedia.
- A set of books that many scholars contributed to.
- Published in 1751.
- European art of the 1600s and early 1700s.
- Characterized by grand, ornate style.
- Seen in Versailles and many paintings.
- Style of the late 1700s.
- Simple and elegant style based off ideas and themes of classical Greece and Rome.
- "New Classical"
- A new, lighter, elegant style.
- Instead of dramatic organ and choral music.
- Included composer such as, Franz Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, and Lugwig van Beethoven.
- Fiction novels were created in 18th century.
- Attracted the now literate middle class that like entertaining stories in everyday language.
18th century European monarchs who were inspired by Enlightenment ideas to rule justly and respect the rights of subjects.
Frederick the Great
- Reformed Prussia.
- Granted religious freedom, reduced censorship, and improved education.
- Abolished use of torture.
- "First Servant to the State"
- One of the most radical reformers.
- Freedom of worship for Protestants, Orthodox Christains, and Jews.
- Abolished serfdom and required that peasants were paid in cash.
- Introduced legal reforms and freedom of the press.
- Undone after his death.
Catherine the Great
- Thought about abolishing serfdom, but after a revolt she took away their last bits of freedom and gave nobles absolute power over serfs.
First Partition of Poland
Russia, Prussia, and Poland all took a part of Poland from Poland's weak king.