published conceptual models, frameworks, and theories that provide a basis for the researcher's belief system and for ways of thinking about the problem studied
published works that demonstrate how theories apply to individual behavior or observed events
a classic work of research literature that is more than 5 years old and is marked by its uniqueness and contribution to professional knowledge
summary of current empirical and theoretical knowledge about particular practice problem that provides a basis for the study conducted
a broad or high level concept that is often complex and abstract
an abstract idea that is used to describe or identify phenomena
clearly stated meanings of the abstract ideas or concepts used by a researcher in a study
a visualization of a grouping of phenomena involving more than one conceptual map in which interrelated phenomena are linked for broader interpretation
a definition of the relationship between and among concepts in a theory that are its foundation
research designed to describe in detail some process, event, or outcome. The deisgn is used when very little is known about the research question
research designed to quantify the strength and the direction of the relationship of two variables in a single subject or the relatipnship between a single variable in two samples
Participants are treated as colleagues rather than subjects
Research must have support and confidence of participants to complete study
Appropriate when purpose of the study is to measure the effect of an intervention, test a theory about relationships, or describe a phenomenon with precision.
Appropriate when the purpose of the study is to understand the meaning of a phenomenon. Has a goal of describing social reactions and interactions with such vividness that reader can understand the meaning of the event. Little emphasis on control.
Based on a view of the world and how we know what we know, focused on the "lived experience," data is coded, grouped, and collapsed into themes
Reality is created by attaching meaning to situations; explores social processes in order to generate or discover a theory that relates to a particular area or situation to explain human behavior
"portrait of a people," seeks to understand people, prolonged observation, culture
study conducted by examining a single phenomenon across multiple populations at a single point in time with no intent for follow up in the design
study confucted by following subjects over a period of time, with data collection occuring at prescribed intervals
used to examine a potential casual relationship that may have already occured
answer research written for future tense. Considered most powerful studies for defining incdence and investigating the potential causes of a condition.
In quantitative studies, the applicability of study findings to the larger population
measures taken in research to ensure accurate findings
which type of study is going to be more controlled?
striving for excellence in research
uses precise measuring tools, a representative sample, and a tightly controlled study design; logical use of design, mesasurement, sample, data collection and statistical analysis
rigor in quantitative study
results shed light on the phenomenon under study; the design of the study is careful to follow the methodology used; data collection and analysis are done with careful precision; researchers acknowledge their own subjectivity; sufficient information is provided in the published report to support the interpretation
rigor in qualitative study
factors that exert an effect on the outcome but that are not part of the planned experiment and may confuse the interpretation of the results
combining qualitative and quantitative methods to: increase confidence in study data, expand the understanding of a phenomenon
detailed documentation of sources of information, data, and design decisions related to qualitative research study
the process of explicitly reflecting on and documenting the researcher's biases
a method of analysis in qualitative research that involves a review of data as they are gathered and comparison to data that have been interpreted to support or reject earlier conclusions
detailed descriptions of the context, environment, and nonverbal communications observed during data collection and inserted by the researcher into the transcripts to enrich the data interpretation prcoess
the degree to which descriptive information such as events, subjects, setting, time, and places are accurately reported
the degree to which participants viewpoints, thoughts, intentions, and experiences are accurately understoof and reported by the qualitative researcher
the degree to which findings can be extended to other persons, times, or settings than those directly studied
the degree to which a theory or theoretical explanation informing or developed from a research study fits the data and is, therefore, credible and defensible
the degree to which an evaluative framework or critique is applied to the object of study
Characteristics that describe the sample and provide a composite picture of the subjects of the study; they are not manipulated or controlled by the researcher.
reports of original research authored by the researcher and published in a scholarly source such as a peer-reviewed research journal or scholarly book
summaries of multiple research studies on one topic
resources that synthesize, summarize, or comment on original research
Which type of source includes: jounrals, books, monographs, and dissertations/ theses?
Which type of source includes systematic reviews, meta- analyses, integrative reviews, qualitative synthesis, reviews of individual articles, and clinical practice guidelines?
Refers to a series of propositions regarding the interrelationships among variables, from which a large number of empirical observations can be deduced
explain phenomena of interest and reflect a philosophical stance; cannot be tested via research; more abstract than theories.
theories taken from other disciplines and used as frameworks or models for nursing practice
a careful description of the concepts and the relationships among them
_______ approaches to design are appropriate when the purpose of the study is to measure the effect of an intervention, test a theory about relationships, or describe a phenomenon with precision.
______ approaches to design are appropriate when the purpose of the study is to understand the meaning of a phenomenon.
Research questions that begin with "what" and "why" generally indicate a ________
Investigation of hte meaning of an experience among a group that has lived through it
a study of the features and interactions of a given culture
aimed at discovering and developing a theory based on systematically collected data about a phenomenon. The intent is to discover a pattern of reactions, interactions, and relationships among people and their concerns
enhancing credibility by cross-checking information and conclusions, using multiple data sources, using multiple research methods or researchers to study the phenomenon, or using multiple theories and perspectives to help interpret the data