CHEMISTRY Atomic Structure

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CHEMISTRY Atomic Structure
2010-03-17 21:22:41
atomic structure

Atomic Structure
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  1. Who was Ernest Rutherford?
    • Discovered Alpha and Beta articles (used Alpha articles to probe the atom)
    • Did the Gold foil exeriment
  2. What were the conclusions of the gold foil experiment?
    • Matter is mainly empty space
    • Matter contains small, massive, positive parts
  3. What did Rutherford's model look like?
    • Small, massive, positive nucleus
    • Electrons orbit nucleus
    • Charges cancel (neutral)
  4. What were some problems with Rutherford's model?
    • Could not explain why electrons stay outside nucleus
    • Could not explain why electrons do not give off energy continuously
  5. Who was Max Planck?
    Proposed matter has a property of waves
  6. What did Planck's wave property say?
    It absorbs and radiates energy in bundles called quanta or photons
  7. What does electromagnetic radiation travel in?
  8. How fast do electromagnetic radiation waves travel (speed of light)?
    3.0 * 108 m/s
  9. Distance between peaks
  10. number of pulses per second
  11. height above midpoint
  12. How are wavelength and frequency related?
    Inversely (As one gets bigger, the other gets smaller)
  13. What is the wave equation?
  14. In the wave equation c=λν, what is c?
    Speed of light
  15. In the wave equation c=λν, what is λ?
    Wavelength (in meters)
  16. In the wave equation c=λν, what is ν?
    Frequency (in hertz)
  17. Which has a high frequency and which has a low frequency? Red and blue?
    • Red - low frequency and long wavelength
    • Blue - high frequency and short wavelength
  18. What color light contains all colors and is separated by a prism because its light refracts?
  19. What is the light energy equation?
  20. In the light energy equation E=hν, what is h?
    Planck's constant - 6.6 * 10-34 J/Hz
  21. In the light energy equation E=hν, what is ν?
    Frequency (in hertz)
  22. What does it mean that light has a dual nature?
    Particles and waves
  23. What are two things about light particles?
    • Quanta or protons
    • Have discreet amounts of energy
  24. What do quanta refer to?
  25. What to photons refer to?
  26. What did Neils Bohr do?
    • Proposed atom model based on quanta
    • Said that electrons could only possess, gain, and lose certain energies
  27. What did Bohr's model look like?
    • Small massive positive nucleus
    • Electrons orbiting nucleus in specific energy levels
    • So, charges cancel making it neutral
    • Had limits on number of electrons in energy levels
  28. What is the equation for the electrons able to fit in the energy levels of Bohr's model?
    • 2*n2
    • 1st - 2
    • 2nd- 8
    • 3rd - 18
  29. Electron position where electrons are close to the nucleus as possible
    ground state
  30. Electron position where electron gains energy and jumps to a higher energy level
    excited state
  31. Electron gives off energy (photon) and falls to a lower energy level
    • De-excitation
    • *This process produces emission (bright-line) spectra
  32. A the number of electrons increases, the emission spectrum becomes more ______
  33. Each element has a _____ emission spectrum (like a _______)
    • Unique
    • Fingerprint
  34. What an the emission spectrum be used for?
    identifying elements
  35. When it came to emission spectras with Bohr's model what happened?
    • It explained the emission spectrum for hydrogen very well
    • It could not explain emission spectra of other elements
  36. What are elements composed of?
  37. Atoms combine in fixed whole number ratios to form what?
  38. Atoms are composed of what?
    electrons circling a nucleus
  39. Nuclei are composed of what?
    Protons and neutrons
  40. What is an atom with a different number of neutrons?
  41. What are protons and neutrons composed of?
  42. What are the fundamental particles?
    electrons and quarks
  43. What is included in the modern atomic theory?
    • Elements are composed of atoms
    • Atoms combine in fixed whole number ratios to form compounds
    • Atoms are composed of electrons circling a nucleus
    • Nuclei are composed of protons and neutrons
    • Not all atoms of an element are alike, some have different numbers of neutrons - isotopes
    • Protons and neutrons are composed of quarks
    • Electrons and quarks are the fundamental particles
  44. Number of protons
    atomic number
  45. Number of neutrons
    neutron number
  46. number of protons and neutrons
    mass number
  47. Symbol to represent atomic number
  48. Symbol to represent neutron number
  49. Symbol to represent mass number
  50. The weighted average mass of the naturally occuring isotopes of an element
    atomic mass
  51. Why does A=Z+N?
    Because the mass number equals the atomic number and the neutron number combined
  52. Atoms of an element with different numbers of neutrons
  53. Isotopes of an element have the same number of ______
  54. What does the isotopic symbol look like?

    • A= number of protons and neutrons
    • Z= number of protons
    • X= chemical symbol
  55. What does Heisenberg's uncertainty principle state?
    You cannot precisely know the position and momentum (velocity) of a subatomic particles
  56. What were some implications of Heisenberg's uncertainty principle?
    • Bohr's model was wrong (no precise orbits)
    • Electrons have wave properties
  57. What did the wave-mechanical model look like?
    Electrons live where standing waves do not interfere negitively
  58. What did the electron areas in the wave-mechanical model look like?
    Areas described by clouds with thickest density representing the most likely position
  59. A region of space around a nucleus that can contain electrons of nearly equal energies
    energy level
  60. Where are the lowest energy electrons located?
    closest to the nucleus
  61. A region of space within an energy level that can contain electrons with almost the same energies
  62. What does the number of sublevels equal?
    The energy level number
  63. What is the letter order of the sublevels?
    S, P, D, F
  64. A region of space within a sublevel that can contaion at most two electrons with exactly equal energies
  65. What are the chances of finding an electron in an orbital?
  66. How many orbitals does each sublevel (S, P, D, F) have?
    • S - 1
    • P - 3
    • D - 5
    • F - 7
  67. A place where electrons are not likely to be
  68. How many quantum numbers are there?
  69. In quantum numbers, what is the principal number?
    positive integer
  70. What does a principle number describe?
    The energy level
  71. What is the symbol for the principal number?
  72. What is the orbital number?
    0 or a positive integer up to n-1
  73. What is the orbital number also called?
    azimuthal number
  74. What is the symbol of an orbital number?
  75. What does an orbital number describe?
    The geometric shape of the orbital
  76. What shapes do the orbital numbers 0-3 have?
    • 0 - sphere
    • 1 - dumbell
    • 2 - clover
    • 3 - jacks
  77. What is the magnetic number?
    Positive or negative integer from -l to +l
  78. What is the symbol for the magnetic number?
  79. What does the magnetic number describe?
    The oreintation of the orbital
  80. What is the spin number?
    -1/2 or +1/2
  81. What is the symbol for the spin number?
  82. What is the spin number associated with?
    magnetic field
  83. A pair of electrons with opposite fields _____
    • cancel
    • They can stay in the same orbital
  84. No set of electrons in an atom can have the same _______
    set of four quantum numbers
  85. Arrangement of electrons in an atom (written for ground state only)
    electron configuration
  86. Uses boxes to represent orbitals of an occupied sublevel in an atom
    orbital diagram (where electrons are shown as arrows)
  87. Uses sublevel ID and a superscript to show electron arrangement in sublevels
    SPDF Notation
  88. The part of an electron configuration that is common to all elements in a period
    Kernel notation
  89. Elements that have indomplete D sublevels and have abnormal electron configurations
    anomalous configurations
  90. The outermost energy level contaioning electrons in the ground state
    valence shell
  91. electrons in the valence shell
    valence electrons
  92. What do valence electrons determine?
    • Most chemical proerties
    • Elements with the same number of valence electrons tend to react similarly
  93. Which group of valence shells are unreactive and why?
    8, because they are full
  94. Show element symbol and uses dots on the sides
    Lewis dot symbol
  95. Same valence shell
  96. Same number of valence electrons
  97. Percentage of a given isotope in a very large sample of an element as it occurs on earth
    natural abundance
  98. The actual mass of an atom
    isotopic mass
  99. How is isotopic mass found?
    By summing the masses of the nucleons
  100. A principle stating no two elecrons have the same sets of four quantum numbers
    Pauli Exclusion Principle
  101. Calculated the strength of the forces between charged objects and found that if they are close they are strong and if they are far they are weak
    Charles Coulomb
  102. Made the law of conservation of matter ( matter is concrete and measurable)
    Antoine Lavoisier
  103. Formed the first Atomic Theory
    John Dalton
  104. Showed cathode ray particles had negativve charges and proosed that these electrons are a fundamental part of all matter
    J.J. Thomson