Horticulture MT1

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kjel
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110274
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Horticulture MT1
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2011-10-20 04:22:36
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Horticulture MT1
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Horticulture MT1
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  1. agronomy
    study of crops
  2. monoecious
    male and female on the same plant
  3. dioecious
    males and females are separate plants
  4. photosynthesis, "formula of life"
    • 6 CO2 + 6 H2O-->light & chlorophyll-- > C6H12O + 6 O2
    • glucose and oxygen
  5. 4 ingredients and 2 products of photosynthesis
    • 1. carbon dioxide
    • 2. oxygen
    • 3. light
    • 4. chlorophyll

    • 1. glucose
    • 2. oxygen
  6. Cation Exchange Capacity
    a measure of a soils ability to retain fertility; the sum of exchangeable cations absorbed by a soil

    as particles become smaller the soil has more surfaces available for chemical reaction to occur
  7. Rhyzobia
    in legumes, a bacteria that fixes atmospheric nitrogen
  8. anything organic has a ________ backbone
    carbon
  9. 3 available sources of nitrogen
    • nitrates
    • ammonium
    • urea
  10. 3 structural elements
    • C carbon
    • H hydrogen
    • O oxygen
  11. 6 macro elements
    • N nitrogen
    • P phosphorus
    • K potassium
    • Ca calcium
    • Mg magnesium
    • S sulfur
  12. 9 micro elements
    • Fe iron
    • Cu copper
    • B boron
    • Cl chlorine
    • Ni nickle
    • Mo molybdemum
    • Mn manganese
    • Co cobalt
    • Zn zinc
  13. field capacity
    maximum amount of water that a soil can hold against the force of gravity
  14. to lower soil pH; rapidly/slowly
    • rapidly: add iron sulfate or aluminum sulfate
    • slowly: soil sulfur
  15. to raise pH; rapidly/slowly
    • rapidly: add hydrate lime (calcium hydroxate)
    • slowly: add limestone (calcium carbonate) or dolomitic limestone
  16. pressure =
    force/area
  17. 3 mechanisms for water to travel up a plant:
    • 1. root pressure
    • 2. capillary action
    • 3. transpirational pull
  18. mulching advantages 6
    • cools soil
    • discourages weeds
    • esthetics
    • keeps in moisture
    • adds nutrients to soil as it breaks down
    • keeps slugs/snails away
  19. pathogens
    harmful organisms that attack plants, cause diseases
  20. biotic diseases (infectious diseases) sources
    • fungi
    • bacteria
    • viruses
  21. abiotic diseases (noninfectious diseases) sourses
    • nutritional problems
    • air pollution
    • extremes of heat/cold or wet/dry
  22. 4 stages of plant diseases:
    • Inoculation
    • Penetration
    • Infection
    • Dissemination
  23. Phytophthora
    Armillaria
    Fusarium
    Verticillium
    Botrytis
    Penicillium
    Taphrina
    Pythinium
    Rhyzoctonia
    fungi
  24. Agrobacterium
    Corynebacterium
    Erwinia
    Pseudomonas
    Streptomyces
    Xanthomonas
    Xylella
    bacteria
  25. VFN resistent seeds
    Verticillium, Fusarium, Nematodes
  26. incubation period
    interval between inoculation and disease symptoms
  27. lichens
    symbotic relationship between fungus and algae
  28. necrosis
    killing of tissue
  29. three points to the plant disease triangle
    • pathogen
    • suseptible host
    • favorable environment
  30. like a mosquito's "elephant trunk"
    proboscis
  31. insects that exude honeydew
    • S cales
    • W hiteflies
    • A phids
    • M ealy bugs
  32. Bt, Bacillus thuringiensis
    bacteria that interferes with chewing insects digestive system
  33. safe insecticides (botanical)
    • pyrethrum
    • pyrethrins
    • rotenone
    • sabadilla
  34. major methods of controlling insect pests -- 5
    • legislative control: quarantines
    • physical/mechanical control: handpicking, cardboard ot tar paper collars
    • cultural control: planting pest resistant plants, rotating locations
    • biological control: natural enemies is insects
    • chemical control: insecticidal soaps, horticultural oils, botanical compounds
  35. horticulture
    the industry and science of plant cultivation
  36. botany
    the scientific study of plants, including their physiology, structure, genetics, ecology, distribution, classification, and economic importance
  37. totipotency
    every cell has the potential to produce an entire plant
  38. preventing soil structure breakdown
    • cultivate and plow soil at an intermediate moisture content
    • avoid recompaction of freshly loosened or plowed soil
    • reduce traffic, designate traffic areas
  39. ATP
    an enzyme that transports chemical energy within cells for metabolism
  40. 5 groups of plant hormones
    • auxins
    • gibberellins
    • cytokinans
    • ethylene
    • abscisic acid
  41. where cell division takes place
    meristem
  42. cambium layer
    lateral meristem
  43. 4 underground stems
    • rhyzomes
    • tuber
    • corm
    • bulb (sometimes overground)
  44. 4 monocot characteristics
    • vascular tissues scattered in stem
    • flower parts in 3s or multiples
    • leaf venation parallel
    • seedlings with one seed leaf
  45. 4 dicot characteristics
    • vascular tissues circular pattern
    • flower parts in 4s or 5s or multiples
    • leaf venation branched
    • seedlings with two seed leaves
  46. respiration
    • the process in which chemical energy is obtained from the controlled biological breakdown of carbohydrates
    • C6H12O6 + 6 O2 ------enzymes---> 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + energy
    • happens inside mitochondria
  47. Latin toxonomy
    Genus species subspecies
  48. bulk density
    evaluates the amount of air or pore space in a given soil
  49. a low C:N
    less than 25:1

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