PREL 245.txt

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Author:
coolgirl888
ID:
110303
Filename:
PREL 245.txt
Updated:
2011-10-19 16:51:05
Tags:
Research
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Description:
Communication Research flashcards up to the midterm
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  1. PR Research
    • Essential tool for fact & opinion gathering
    • Systematic
    • Discovers & confirms info
    • Planning, collection & analysis
  2. Research enables us to:
    • Link organizations to publics
    • Solve new/complex problems
    • Build reputation of profession
  3. Formative Research
    Provides data & perspective to guide canpaign creation
  4. Program Research
    Guides the implementation of a program
  5. Summative Research
    Provides data to evaluate success
  6. Research Obstacles
    • Fear of evaluating - time & money constraints
    • Fear of evaluation - evidence of failure
  7. AVE
    • Advertising Value Equivalency
    • A poor measure of success but still used in the industry
  8. Research considerations
    • Costs vs benefits
    • Resources available to conduct/implement it
    • Organizational attitude towards research
  9. Strategic Communication
    • Proactive
    • Linked to mission, vision, values & goals
  10. Strategic Planning Pyramid
    • Tactics
    • Strategies
    • Objectives
    • Goals
  11. Mission Statement
    Purpose statement of philosophy, why organization exists
  12. Relevant Publics
    Who an issue matters to & why
  13. Communication Plans
    • Strategic
    • Addresses an issue
    • Solves a problem
    • Corrects/improves a situation
    • Capitalizes on an opportunity
  14. Types of Communication Plans
    • Awareness
    • Information
    • Education
  15. RACE process
    • Research
    • Analysis
    • Communication
    • Evaluation
  16. Situation analysis
    Covers the who, what, when, where, why & how of the issue
  17. Goal
    • Conceptual statement, what you plan to achieve
    • Sets out symptom & problem
    • Identifies relevant public
    • Quantifiable
  18. Objectives
    • Short term steps with specific measurements
    • Have a realistic, achievable timeline
    • They drive evaluation
  19. Strategies
    Focus on how - creative direction of reaching objectives
  20. Tactics
    • Steps to achieve each strategies
    • Match media with audience
    • Use more than 1 medium
  21. Research Process
    • Business problem/need identified
    • Research objectives clearly stated
    • Methology/design selected
    • Data collected
    • Tracking during implementation
    • Evaluation of results
  22. Research Proposal Includes:
    • Introduction
    • Methodology
    • References
    • Schedule
  23. Methodology
    • Research strategy
    • Method chosen & why

    Is driven by objectives, budget & timeline
  24. Do Secondary Research First To:
    • Get background info
    • Get stats & demographic info for related issues
    • Identify applicable theories
  25. Secondary Research Pros
    • Lower cost
    • Saves time
    • Helps define the issue
    • Eliminates knowledge gaps
  26. Secondary Research Cons
    • May have had a different purpose & be irrelevent
    • May not be current
    • May not be accurate
    • Data you need may not exist
  27. Internal Secondary Info
    Policy, reports, surveys, website, corporate history, financial documents
  28. External Secondary Info
    Media, other websites, lobby groups, complaints
  29. Primary Research Pros
    • Formal
    • Accurate
    • More credible
    • Collected for your specific purpose
  30. Primary Research Cons
    • May be expensive
    • Time consuming
    • Takes workers away normal duties
    • People may not respond
  31. Primary Sources
    • Observation
    • Textual analysis
    • Surveys
    • Interviews
    • Experimentation
  32. Qualitative Data
    • Informal
    • Tells us why
    • Gives rich data & insights
  33. Quantitative Data
    • Formal
    • Scientific
    • Numerical
  34. Qualitative Data Examples
    • Focus groups
    • 1 on 1 interviews
    • Town meetings
    • Content analysis
    • Ethnographic observation
  35. Qualitative Exploratory Research
    • Supports questionnaire design
    • Tests product/program
    • Tests ads
    • Understand perceptions
  36. Accuracy
    Error free data results
  37. Precision
    Results are exact information
  38. Reliability
    Results can be reproduced
  39. Standard deviation
    1.65, 1.96, 2.58
  40. Normal distribution
    90%, 95%, 99%
  41. Margin of error
    Confidence interval X 2
  42. Dispersion
    • How a characteristic is dispersed in a population
    • Written as a decimal, adds up to 1.0
  43. Sample Size Formula
    • N = (confidence level/confidence interval)^2
    • X % variance of pop
    • X % with no variable pop.
  44. Altering Margin of Error
    There is a tradeoff between confidence level & margin of error
  45. MBO
    Management by objectives

    • Conceptualization
    • Monitoring
    • Planning
    • Organizing & coordinating
    • Administration
    • Evaluation
  46. Uses for Research in Strategic Planning
    • Problem identification
    • Problem effects/implications
    • Strategic direction
    • Strategy testing
    • Tracking during implementation
    • Evaluation
  47. Stuff to Know about Target Publics
    • Demographics
    • Psychographics
    • Sociographics
    • Behaviors
    • Communication behaviors
  48. Communication Behaviors Measures
    • Problem recognition
    • Constraint recognition
    • Level of involvement
  49. Effective Communication Vehicle Measures
    • Credibility
    • Reach & Exposure Frequency
    • Efficiency
    • Control
    • Flexibility
    • Context
  50. External Validity
    Generalizability of research results
  51. Internal Validity
    Are we measuring what we think we are?
  52. Face Validity
    Researchers examine a research measure to determine whether it appears to measure what they want it to
  53. Content Validity
    Comprehensive nature of research measures, fully captures all aspects of the idea it is supposed to measure
  54. Predictive/Criterion Validity
    Soundness of a research measure when tested against an external standard (eg. Actual performance)
  55. Research Project Design
    • Define research problem
    • Review literature
    • Develop hypotheses
    • Determine method and design project
    • Collect data
    • Analyze & interpret
    • Determine implications
    • Replicate studies
  56. Q Methodology
    Research participants sort large numbers of opinion statements and place them in groups along continuums. Researchers then assign numical values to the rankings for statistical analysis.

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