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The entire way of life of a group of people (including both material and symbolic elements) that acts as a lens through which one views the world and is passed from one generation to the next.
The values, norms, and practices of the group within society that is most powerful (in terms of wealth, prestige, status, influence, etc.).
The principle of using one's own culture as a means or standard by which to evaluate another group or individual, leading to the view that cultures other than one's own are abnormal.
- EX; a student saying a another culture is really werid based on the food they eat
A loosely enforced norm involving common customs, practices, or procedures that ensure smooth social interaction and acceptance.
- EX; someone wearing socks and sandals
The objects associated with a cultural group, such as tools, machines, utensils, buildings, and artwork; any physical object which we give social meaning.
A norm that carries great moral significance, is closely related to the core values of a cultural group, and often involves severe repercussions for violators.
A rule or guideline regarding what kinds of behavior are acceptable and appropriate within a culture.
The norms, values, and patterns of behavior that actually exist within a society (which may or may not correspond to the society's ideals).
Positive or negative reactions to the ways that people follow or disobey norms, including rewards for conformity and punishments for norm violations.
A question asked of a respondent that imposes a limit on the possible responses.
- closed ended question
- EX;are you for or against gay marriage?
A method in which researchers identify and study specific variables—such as words—in a text, image, or media message.
- content anyalsis
- EX; MAGS and TV commericials
The part of a test group that is allowed to continue without intervention so that it can be compared with the experimental group.
Factor that is changed by the independent variable.
The part of a test group that receives the experimental treatment.
A specific example of reactivity, in which the desired effect is the result not of the independent variable, but of the research itself
Factor that is predicted to cause change.
Questions that predispose a respondent to answer in a certain way.
A question asked of a respondent that allows the answer to take whatever form the respondent chooses.
- open ended question
- EX;wHAT do u thik about gay marraige?
A methodology associated with ethnography whereby the researcher both observes and becomes a member in a social setting.