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By Yalta Feb 1945, Roosevelt himself surrendered basic American policy although
· he would not leading up to Pearl Harbor
US wanted a strong who? Who did not agree?
· wanted a strong China. This was not shared in London. Winston Churchill did not think China should be mentioned in the same sentence as GB, Soviets, and USA. Afterall it was Chinese weakness that involved the US and GB in war against Japan.
To Churchill China was what?
· simply not a great power like great Britain. Americans expected Chinese to do more to win the war than they were capable. Americans expected Chinese to become dominant power in east Asia, but did not happen.
Resources were shifted to Europe during when?
· The war…. There was higher priority for beating Germany than Japan and supporting China.
During middle of the war there were more troops in Asia than Europe. this was prior to D-Day.
· 20,000 more troops
- This would change later, but there were many
- troops in eastern asia. Was many in eastern asia (the islands), not in china
Chaing Kaichek is a little 'dummy'. didn’t want to do what Stillwell wanted.
General Joseph Stillwell outlined his ideas July 1942 for George Marshall.
- · Do not rely on good will of Chaing Kaichek.
- · Roosevelt did not want to induce this policy
Roosevelt respected Chaing Kaicheck more than Stillwell.
· Roosevelt saw before Sino-Japanese war, Chaing was unifying China.
If Europe and Atlantic were higher priority than Asia and pacific. War department and navy may move sources to Europe.
· Stillwell found it very frustrating. He saw Chaing Kaichek as a scammer. We need a little realism.
US vs Soviet Approach
- · In Russia there is a direct approach. Instead of saying accept that our harmious view, soviets say if you don’t do it we will. Not politically correct but effective
- · Vinegar Joe (Joeseph Stillwell) wanted Roosevelt to do this, but Roosevelt had different approach
- · Roosevelt thought Stillwell has wrong approach. Generalisimo (Chiang) came up hard way to lead 40 million people. Besides that he wants supremecy. Roosevelt understood political realities that shaped Chiang's approach.
Summer 1944 - Japanese moved into china. Threatened American air bases that could be used to bomb Japanese.
- · Chiang was still not giving the kind of defense of American bases as was expect. If Chiang did not stop Japanese then American bases would be over run.
- · War department recommended that Stillwell should be general of American and Chinese
- · Chaing did not want vinegar joe to control Chinese troops.
- · From Hurley Chiang learned that Roosevelt would not completely support Stillwell.
- · Chiang openly asked for removal of Stillwell
- · Roosevelt complied and fired Stillwell, Hurley would continue to be there
One problem Chaing faced was an internal war along with external war
- · Japan was External threat
- · Communist party led by Mao Tse-tung (Mao Zedong) was internal threat to Nationalists
There was agreement between the two
· Agreement between the two to be anti-Japanese
Communists wanted 3 things
- · Truce
- · something
- · something
- · Also wanted to expand in china. Local success then call for truce. internal clash took place in china
Americans aware of the minor clashes saw unity in Chinese. US wanted to align china against Japan.
- · This was particular policy Hurley tried to negotiate the Summer of 1944
- · US hoped China would turn democratic. Unfortunately Nationalists and Communists
- were not democratic
This policy was based on several false assumptions
- · Presupposed communist Chinese would be willing to enter joint gov. with nationalists (not
- the case)
- · Even if there were irreconcilable differences, the communists would not have enough power to replace nationalists (also not the case)
- · Communists in China would not receive support from Stalin (was not all that much support, but Stalin had some ambitions for china not including Chain Kaishek)
General Patrick Hurley would try to unify China
· Totally unsuccessful. By end of the war he ended in failure
Meanwhile Stalin, Churchill, Roosevelt came together at Yalta to deal with Europe and Asia.
- · Japan and Russia proclaimed not fighting each other
- · Nightmare for American planners was that Japanese would recall troops to Japan ready to
- face American invasion. This may lead to many American casualties.
- · American military planners wanted soviets to declare war on Japanese. come to china to
- find Japanese.
This surfaces at Moscow conference 1943, and at Tehran.
- · Stalin gave tentative indication that soviets may enter war in Asia.
- · Molotov and Stalin wanted to return to Russia what Russians lost in Russo-Japanese war.
- Islands should be given to Russians by Japanese. Should get Manchuria as well. In addition, Russia should get influence in Mongolia
At Yalta, 1945, Roosevelt agreed with these claims to get Stalin to join war.
- · Stalin said he would enter at the east within 3 months of ending war in Europe.
- · Roosevelt also promised he would convince Chaing Kaichek would make concessions to Soviets. It was left to Truman to do this
On eve of Potsdam conference (1945) first A bomb was tested in New mexico.
· Would clearly increase chance of win against Japanese. For Truman this was an easy decision to bomb the Japanese with A Bombs. After Truman, Clement Attlee (british prime minister) , and China issued Potsdam declaration.
Truman authorized Hiroshima and Nagasaki
· Aug 6, 1945. When Japan did not immediately surrender he authorized Nagasaki, August 9, 1945. which led to formal surrender Sept 2 1945
Stalin moved in when?
- · August 8, 1945
- · Stalin could have done this to fulfil his commitment, could have moved in to get his spoils of war
- · Truman never got concessions from Chiang
Chiang Kai-Shek wanted to start negotiating
- · Aug 14, 1945, SinoSoviet agreement
- · Chiang acknowledged Russian interests in Mangolia, and Manchuria.
- · Stalin in return acknowledged nationalist gov