chapter 11

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Author:
Naheer
ID:
110386
Filename:
chapter 11
Updated:
2011-10-31 21:23:07
Tags:
geology
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Description:
Mountains
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  1. what are the types of differential stress?
    • tensional- crust stretching
    • compressive- crust shortening
    • confining- undeformed sedimentary layers
    • shear- bending and breaking
  2. what is strain?
    the change in shape or volume of a rock caused by stress
  3. strain takes place in 3 stages:
    • elastic deformation
    • ductile deformation
    • fracture
  4. type of strain depends on:
    • temp
    • confining pressure
    • rate of strain
    • presence of water
    • composition of rock
  5. strain in crust produces _____, _______ and ______
    joints, faults and folds
  6. what are strikes and dip symbols used to indicate?
    age, lithology and structure
  7. _________ and ________ are most common types of faults
    dip slip, strike slip
  8. what are three types of dip slip faults?
    • normal-tensional stress
    • reverse-compressive stress
    • thrust-low angle reverse fault
  9. on a strike slip fault the relative motion on the fault plane is ________
    horizontal
  10. what are two strike slip faults?
    • left-lateral
    • right-lateral
  11. what are the major fault types?
    • normal
    • reverse
    • thrust
    • left lateral strike slip fault
    • right lateral strike slip fault
  12. what type is faults is one of most dangerous?
    strike slip
  13. rocks are results of ductile information which are cause by?
    compressive stresses
  14. what is a syncline?
    concave upper arch with younger rocks in center of fold
  15. what is anticline?
    convex upward arch with older rocks at center of fold
  16. what is afaulted fold?
    severe compression
  17. in domes and basins, where is yonger and older rock located|?
    • dome-oldest rock middle, younger rock outside
    • basin-young rock in middle and older rock outside
  18. what is isostasy?
    • newly built montains weathered and eroded
    • mass reduced float higher in mantle
  19. volcanic mountains are formed by ________ and not ________
    • volcanic products
    • deformation
  20. cascade mountains
    • pacific northwest
    • several active volcanoes
    • active during late tertiary and quaternary
    • volcanic arc above subduction zone
    • juan de fuca and gorda plates subducted by north american plate
  21. which structures are developed at basin and range province?
    horst and graben
  22. basin and range province
    • located idaho nevada and utah
    • decompression and high heat above subducted rift zone
    • normal faults cause thickeneing, uplift and tensional stress
  23. which belts are highest and most structurally complex mountain belts?
    fold and thrust
  24. how are fold and thrust mountains formed?
    • large compressive stresses in crust and convergent margins when continental crust collides
    • rocks in collison zone folded, faulted and thrust faulted
    • crustal thickening pushes upward

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