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what are the types of differential stress?
- tensional- crust stretching
- compressive- crust shortening
- confining- undeformed sedimentary layers
- shear- bending and breaking
what is strain?
the change in shape or volume of a rock caused by stress
strain takes place in 3 stages:
- elastic deformation
- ductile deformation
type of strain depends on:
- confining pressure
- rate of strain
- presence of water
- composition of rock
strain in crust produces _____, _______ and ______
joints, faults and folds
what are strikes and dip symbols used to indicate?
age, lithology and structure
_________ and ________ are most common types of faults
dip slip, strike slip
what are three types of dip slip faults?
- normal-tensional stress
- reverse-compressive stress
- thrust-low angle reverse fault
on a strike slip fault the relative motion on the fault plane is ________
what are two strike slip faults?
what are the major fault types?
- left lateral strike slip fault
- right lateral strike slip fault
what type is faults is one of most dangerous?
rocks are results of ductile information which are cause by?
what is a syncline?
concave upper arch with younger rocks in center of fold
what is anticline?
convex upward arch with older rocks at center of fold
what is afaulted fold?
in domes and basins, where is yonger and older rock located|?
- dome-oldest rock middle, younger rock outside
- basin-young rock in middle and older rock outside
what is isostasy?
- newly built montains weathered and eroded
- mass reduced float higher in mantle
volcanic mountains are formed by ________ and not ________
- volcanic products
- pacific northwest
- several active volcanoes
- active during late tertiary and quaternary
- volcanic arc above subduction zone
- juan de fuca and gorda plates subducted by north american plate
which structures are developed at basin and range province?
horst and graben
basin and range province
- located idaho nevada and utah
- decompression and high heat above subducted rift zone
- normal faults cause thickeneing, uplift and tensional stress
which belts are highest and most structurally complex mountain belts?
fold and thrust
how are fold and thrust mountains formed?
- large compressive stresses in crust and convergent margins when continental crust collides
- rocks in collison zone folded, faulted and thrust faulted
- crustal thickening pushes upward
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