LARC Test2

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LARC Test2
2011-10-19 20:49:12

History of Landscape Architecture
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  1. - – Phoenician city-state w/ harbor at the outlet of perennial river in Tunisia. Dominated Tyre and Sidon
    - Wealthiest city in the world 7th BCE
    - Hegemony based on trading points instead of land conquest – paid rent to Libyans for land thereTraded raw materials in Iberia for goods out of Greece and Egypt
  2. served Julius Caesar as an army engineer
  3. - he served in North Africa, Spain, Gaul (France), and Pontus (Turkey)
  4. - Gave us the saying: a building must have three essential qualities – durability, utility, and beauty
  5. - Moved 44 million imperial gallons of water 31 miles in 27 hours for 50,000 people
    - Begins at Fontaine d’Eure (still flows)
    - Gradient only 1:3000
    Pont Du Gard
  6. - Mostly underground (trench lines and sealed, covered w/ stone vaults and soil)
    - Terminates at distribution castellum in Nemes, round holes for distribution pipes
    Pont Du Gard
  7. o Moved spring water from spring to town
    o Toll bridge during middle ages
    o Picturesque painting for Louis XVI 1787
    o European tourist venue, 19th century
    o UNESCO Heritage site 1985
    Pont Du Gard
  8. The City on Seven Hills
  9. for temples to pagan gods such as Jupiter
    Capitoline Hill
  10. o Stone bleachers seat up to 150,000 spectators
    o Fancy arched entrance
    o Decorated spina and obelisk
    o Flood prevention earth works
    o Ornate entrance and chariot gates
    o Last known race: 549 AD
    o Area now used for concerts
    Circus Maximus
  11. heart for centuries of public space, was in marsh that had to be drained
    Forum Romanum
  12. dramas and gladiatorial contests
    Colosseum (80 AD)
  13. o Sponsored by Hadrian (adopted son of Trajan) 118-128 CE
    o A temple to All the Gods
    o Engineering marvel: concrete, no rebar in dome; cracking but not crumbling
    Pantheon (125 AD)
  14. - son of Neptune, supreme god of the pantheon, protector of the state, thunder, magic, paternity
  15. daughter of Neptune and Jupiter’s wife, protectoress of the community, marriage, fertility, and war
  16. (similar to Athena) – virgin goddess of wisdom, poetry, medicine, commerce, weaving, crafts, magic
  17. Goddess of Roman family hearth, guardian on eternal flame
  18. - Provincial governor (procurator) for Vespasian, who succeeded Neo as emperor
    - Author of Naturlais Historia, encyclopedic summary of ancient knowledge in botany, zoology, astonomy, geology, mineralogy, and methods of exploiting natural resources
    - Included art history
    - Description of eruption of Mt. Vesuvius
  19. Pliny the Elder
  20. - Mountainous Mediterranean island between mainland and EgyptNatural springs, stone and mineral deposits, arable land and harbors, commanding seaward views
    Minoan Civ.
  21. “Secret Land in the North”
  22. birthplace of Zeus; Odysseus was detained there by the sorceress Circe.
    Mt. Ida
  23. o Entrance court overlook harbor
    o Storage for trade goods
    o Guest dining room
    o Queens hall
    o Accounting office
    o Warehouse storage for surplus goods
    o Views open to harbor and town below
    o Primary villa court views open to hilltop cult sanctuary
    Villa Complex at Ayia Triada,
  24. Frescoes and shape of the seat in throne room indicate
    female rulers
  25. o Column shafts are made up of upside down cypress trunks

    o Difficult to “read” palace layout, especially from areas below

    o Exit from central courtyard presents view of mythical birthplace of Zeus
    o Palace compound is a labyrinth
    o No single main entrance
  26. brings the tribute to the labyrinth and wins affection of Minos’ daughter Ariadne, who is Mistress of the Labyrinth.
  27. escape on wings sealed with wax
    Daedalus and Icarus
  28. He forgets to put on sails to signal he was successful, so his grief stricken father leaps off a cliff to his death
  29. Mycenaean god of wine, ecstasy, epiphany, and madness
  30. - conduct a 10 yr siege (the Trojan War). He succeeds at last with subterfuge (Trojan horse)
    Agamemnon and Achilles
  31. murders Agamemnon in his bath
  32. Mountain creates a ‘military crest’
    Citadel at Mycenae
  33. o Probably from a province on west coast of Aegean Sea
    o Iliad and the Odyssey
    o Fundamental to western thought
    o Life as extended heroic journey
  34. o Born in Miletus
    o Studied under Egyptian priests
    o Mathematician
    o Father of greek philosophy
    o Demythologyizer
    o Diameter bisects a circle
    o Sum of angles in a triangle is 180*
    o Trigonometry
    o Studied electricity as a scienceMind and matter are separate
  35. o Called himself philosopher – “lover of wisdom” rather than a sage or a wise man

    o Scientist – relationship between physical events and mathematics
    o Music theory: harmonics reflected in mathematics
    o Mystic – religious leader, believed in reincarnation
    o Strong influence on plato
  36. o Father of numerous deities as well as humans
    o Symbols: thunderbolt, oak, eagle, bull
    o Warned that a liaison with Metia (a Titan) would produce offspring greater than heTook Metia as consort and devoured her believing it would prevent offspring
  37. o Statesman & Soldier
    o First citizen of Athens
    o Initiated public works projects that included the Acropolis
    o Promoted arts and literature such that Athens became the world center
    o Democratic “Populist”
  38. o Traditional analysis is based on assertion that Golden Mean was used – little or no consideration of site position and orientation of the installation
  39. Pythagorean harmonics, common greek dactyl modular are better predictions of the dimensions of the structure
    Bulcken’s analysis (2001)
  40. o uses computer simulation so show the east west columns of the Parthenon are oreiented to the Red Star Aldebaran, which is called the “Eye of Zeus” (legend of Athena) A good reason to site the Parthenon high
    Sault 2011
  41. uses Golden Mean to design Parthenon
  42. develops classical human proportions based on ratios form geometry
  43. smaller heads, slight elongation, and contrapposto
  44. o Insisted on the application of reason (logic and science) instead of myth, legend, or superstition.
    o Strong interest in natural science
    o Said to know more than any other human being
    o Hired by phillip of Macedon to tutor Alexander
  45. o Lived close to Athens
    o Conducted classes in a nearby park called Academe
    o Wrote dialogs of Socrates
    o Aristotle was one of his students
    o Allegory of the cave is a powerful statement on the theory of knowledge
  46. o Thought to be in charge of nature
    o They were also believed to be able to take over human minds
    o The character of these precincts survived the assaults of intellect and religion on the ancient gods
    o Now they are called fairiesSome gardeners claim to be able to get their cooperation for outstanding production in adverse conditions
  47. o Might be in the countryside or the city, often located beside a public roadway
    o Basic elements – trees, water, and altar
    o Sometimes pathways and open areas
    o Sometimes enclosed and dressed; some not (Calypso); also some in the form of a grotto
    o Often a sacred tree in the center, between the spring and the altar
    o Non-fruit bearing species with good shade (low maintenance)
    Sacred Groves
  48. o Emphasized human relationships rather than relationships of humans to the gods
    o Oedipus Rex used in Plato’s writing
  49. o Father of the Greek tragedy dramatic form
    o Identification purifies by catharsis
    o Added characters to allow interaction with one another instead of only the chorus
  50. o Conflated mythical figures with real life characters
    o Probably revised tales of theseus and the minotaur
  51. o Laid out by Hyppodamus, now called the father of town planning
    o Greeks used the same grid pattern when they rebuilt it laterHas a theater and three agoras
  52. Greeks established the finest and most complete library in the known world at
  53. - Unifies the Persian empire by conquest of Medes – builds Pasargadae
    Cyrus the Great
  54. prototypical paradise garden – it is likely to have been planted with cypress, pomegranate and cherry
    Char bagh
  55. - Residential palace and audience hall both built with a double plinth foundation to resis earthquake disturbance up to 7.0 on richter scale – modern engineers often use this methodCitadel stones connected with metal anchors instead of mortar joints
  56. extends hegemony east to include Egypt, the Levant and Libya, and west into India and central Asia
    - Defeated by an Athenian alliance at Marathon, he goes home to work on infrastructure such as royal roads and the empire city of Persepolis
    Darius I
  57. wins at Thermopylae and burns Athens, only to lose a major naval battle. He goes back to Persia.
  58. creates a new imperial capital at Persepolis, not far from Pasargadae.
    Darius II
  59. stands at the top of a flight of stairs (4” risers)
    a gate of nations
  60. - Invades Persia in 332 BC – his army defeats the Persians and sacks and burns Persepolis
    Alexander the Great
  61. - The god that was not created is the supreme god
    - Ahura Mazda is all good; no evil comes from Ahura Mazda
    - Good thoughts/action lead to eternal life
    - Women not to be oppressed; slavery not condoned
    - Cyrus the Great released religious captives held in Babylon
    - State religion on Iran before the invasion of Alexander the Great of Greece
    Zoroastrian Cosmology
  62. - Celebrated on the spring equinox as beginning of new cycle
    Festival of Nowruz
  63. - Walled area
    - Ordered planting of fruit and shade trees in rectangular beds: cypress pomegranate and cherry
    - Stone lined irrigation canals
    - Aromatic flowers – lily and rose
    - Meant to be enjoyed form a window, platform, or other overlookEating and social activities took place in pavilions
    Paradise Garden
  64. underground space usually found in traditional architecture in ancient Persia
  65. windcatchers
  66. the last pre-Islamic Persian Empire