APUSH Chapter 9-12 Test
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the doctrine of the equality of mankind and the desirability of political and economic and social equality.
political vs economic democracy
political-people vote for representatives in House and Senate
economic- a shift in decision-making power from a small minority of corporate shareholders to a larger majority of public stakeholders.
Articles of Confederation
(1781)- First American constitution that established the United States as a loose confederation of states to regulate commerce or collect taxes. The Articles were replaced by a more efficient Constitution in 1789. (179)
Pos/Neg Articles of Confederation
Positive- land ordinance (Northwest 1787-allowed all of land in Old Northwest to be sold for purpose of paying off war debts
- Negative-British refused to repeal Navigation Acts
- Spain closed Mississippi River to American commerce and took advantage of and that was given to the US by Great Britain
- A loose confederation of states
- 1 vote in Congress for each state
- Laws administered loosely by committees of Congress
- No congressional power over commerce
- No congressional power to levy taxes
- Limited federal courts
- Unanimity of states for amendment
- No authority to act directly upon individuals and no power to coerce states
(1786)-Armed uprising of western Massachusetts debtors seeking lower taxes and an end to property foreclosures. Though quickly put down, the insurrection inspired fears of "mob rule" among leading Revolutionaries
(1787)- take a risky move by scrapping the Articles of Confederation and creating a new Constitution
James Madison is considered "The Father"
Great Compromise-popular term for the measure which reconciled the New Jersey and Virginia plans at the constitutional convention, giving states proportional representation in the House and equal representation in the Senate
Three-fifths compromise- each slave would be counted as three-fifths of a person for the purpose of apportioning taxes and representation; granted disproportionate political power to Southern slave states
The Federalist Papers
(1788)-collections of essays written by John Jay, James Madison, and Alexander Hamilton and published during the ratification debate in New York to lay out the Federalists' arguments in favor of the New Constitution. Since their publication, these influential essays have served as an important sources for constitutional interpretation
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