PHYSIOPSYCH_Test 3 sex pt. I

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PHYSIOPSYCH_Test 3 sex pt. I
2011-11-05 08:47:35
psu physiological psychology

Physiological psychology - Test 3 (sex part I)
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  1. a physical trait or behavior that differs between males and females (ie. courting, peacocking)
    sexually dimorphic behavior
  2. To reach XX and XY, they are made up of (23) chromosomes. what makes up chromosomes?
  3. DNA is a component of chromosomes. what makes up DNA?
  4. Genes are a component of DNA. Genes, then, are small components that create _______, which determines inherited features and behavior.
  5. ________ masculinizes the body
  6. undifferentiated gonads; "__________" can go either way
  7. The sex determining region of the Y chromosome: _______
    SRY region
  8. Binding to DNA, this causes testicle development. (it is needed to have male sex organs).
    ___+undifferentiated gonads= testes
  9. at about _____ weeks, gender differentiation occurs.
  10. 2 types of androgen discussed :
    • Testosterone
    • Dihydrotestosterone (DHT)
  11. Testosterone converts to _____, which exerts masculinization
    DHT, dihydrotestosterone
  12. If there is no SRY region present, the Mullerian System would do what?
    • develop into female anatomy; (vagina, uterus)
    • If SRY region IS present, Mullerian system withers away
  13. If the SRY region is present, the Wolfian system would do what?
    • develop into male anatomy; (vas deferens, prostate)
    • If SRY region IS NOT present, Wolfian system withers away
  14. __________ hormones are at work before birth and are permanent. They differentiate the sex
  15. ________ hormones work on organizational hormones and roll out male / female characteristics. They are temporary.
  16. order the terms of sexual development: from first to last (know what happens in each stage)
    gonadal, morphological, hormonal, chromosomal
    • Chromosomal- XX or XY (SRY)
    • Gonadal- testes develop etc.
    • Hormonal- testosterone etc.
    • Morphological- androgenizes the male etc.
  17. If any issues arise during sexual development at any point along the way, it is called _______ sexual _______. "Experiments of nature."
    atypical (sexual) differentiation
  18. An example of this would be the youtube video of Patrick. He possesed a testicle and an ovary.
    True hermaphrodite
  19. a type of atypical sexual differentiation:
    -a lack of or malfunction of androgen receptors.
    -The person is 'XY' and SRY is present, but does not develop external genitalia (due to lack of receptors).
    -The result is a shallow vagina (no menstruation)
    Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (AIS)
  20. a type of atypical sexual differentiation:
    -a lack of enzymes present for testosterone to convert to dihyrdotestosterone (DHT).
    -male organs (produce testosterone), but remain internal UNTIL..
    -at puberty (~age 12), hormones finally develop the male figure (female to male masculinization)
    -"Gueve doces" eggs at 12
    5-Alpha-Reductase Deficiency Syndrome (5ar)
  21. a type of atypical sexual differentiation:
    - "XO" karyotype (absense of an entire sex chromosome)
    -technically considered female by chromosomal standards (No "Y" = female)
    -There are no gonads; they are sterile
    - physical abnormalities (shorter, underdeveloped breasts, webbed neck)
    - caused by a defective sperm (with no Y) joining with an egg
    Turner's Syndrome
  22. a type of atypical sexual differentiation:
    - 'XXY' or 'XYY' karyotype

    -They are male (because Y is present) gonands, male phenotype etc.
    -Lower IQ
    - sterile (low sperm & testosterone "hypogonadism")
    Klinefelter's Syndrome
  23. a type of atypical sexual differentiation:
    -this is NOT chromosome related. Instead...

    - an excessive androgen exposure to females in the womb
    -masculinization of females (ie. large clitoris, large/fused labia

    -shows correlation to increased homo/bisexuality in females with this ( they make up 33% of the entire 5% lesbian population)
    -May look male
    Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH)
  24. The adrenals secrete abnormally large amounts of androgens, and the person is exposed to high androgen levels before birth
    CAH Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia
  25. If a male becomes exhausted by repeated copulation with the same female, if a new female is introduced, he will respond quickly. Named after a president
    Coolidge Effect
  26. In this syndrome, the person usually has a XXY or XYY karyotype; goands are testes, masculine phenotype, low IQ, and sterility. It is the most common cause of male hypogonadism, a condition where men are unable to produce both perm and enough of the male hormone testosterone for the body's needs.
    Klinefelter's Syndrome
  27. CAH girls experience ________ of the genitals
  28. ___________ gonads develop into either ovaries or testies.
  29. A putative human pheromone found in vaginal secretions
  30. ________ and LH (Luteinizing Hormone) are hormones that are involved in reporduction -- testes function and sperm production in men and the menstrual cycle in women
    FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone)
  31. The _____, part of the hypothalmus, is smaller in women and in homosexual men than in heterosexual men.
    INAH-3 (third interstitial nucleus of the anterior hypothalamus)
  32. Hamer (1993) showed that a portion of the X chromosome may play a role in male ________
  33. The connection from the amygdala to VMH; it is involved in learning and fear. It is larger in males than in females, but in men who feel they are trapped in women's bodies (transsexuals), it is smaller
    BNST (Bed nucleus of the stria terminalis)
  34. about _________ of CAH women are gay or bisexual.
  35. Inhibits sexual function
    5-Ht (serotonin)
  36. part of the hypothalamus called the _________ is highly involved in sexual behavior... especially in males. It is larger in males. if this is stimulated, rats increase sexual behavior, if it is [damaged] they will not copulate anymore.
    SDN-MPOA (Sexually Dimorphic Nucleus- of the Medial Preoptic Area)
  37. Nature will automatically make a ____ body if SRY is not present.
  38. Other female animals have an _____ cycle; they do not have a menstrual cycle like women do.
  39. In a strage but useful study, Doty found that men rated the odors of tampons women worn during ______ more pleasant than those worn in other phases of the menstrual cycle.
  40. In ________ deficiency syndrome, a person's body cannot (convert) testosterone to the physiologically active dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-- a "girl" will turn into a boy at puberty.
    5-Alpha Reductase (5ar)
  41. ________ behavior differs between males and females of a species.
    sexually dimorphic
  42. DA (dopamine) and NE (norepinephrin) ____________ sexual function.
  43. People with _____ sexual behavior issues often have frontal and temporal dysfunction.
  44. Regions of the brain that do not have _____ receptors do not show sex differences.
    Sex steroids
  45. Endogenous (internally produced) chemicals that exert effects on conspecifics (opposites of the same species).
  46. An XY male will have internal male sex organs, but a lack of androgen receptors prevents external genitalia from being masculinized. Structures of the penis including the prostate fail to develop.
    Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (AIS)
  47. First menstruation
  48. Involved in the "high" of being in love [argued to also be found in chocolate??]
    PEA (Phenylethylamine)
  49. The penile ___________ is in the lowest part of the spinal cord.
    erection center
  50. If a rodent's brain is NOT exposed to __________ during a critcal period of development, the animal will engage in female sexual behavior
  51. Hormones effects later in life-- after the organization of the body and nervous system.
    Activational hormones
  52. The _______ hypothesis state that sexual differentiation of the nervous system is guided by the same steroid (e.g. androgen) cues that guide sexual differentiation of the body.
  53. After copulation, most male animals show a _______ --- sex cannot occur again immediately
    refractory period
  54. The ____ is activated when viewing erotic films.
    limbic system
  55. Is involved in fighting, fleeing, feeding, and reproducing.
  56. Monkeys showed differential sex preferences in their selection of _____ similar to those seen in human boys and girls.
  57. The ______, part of the hypothalamus, responds to stimulation of the genitals.
    PVN (Paraventricular Nucleus)
  58. Processes pheromones; evidence for vestigial one in humans
    VNO (Vomeronasal Organ)
  59. The _____of the Y chromosome causes undifferentiated gonads to develop into testes.
    SRY region
  60. Involved in the rewarding properties of sex
    Basal ganglia
  61. The anterior commisure is _______ in women than men
  62. Hamer 1993: twin studies for correlating what?
    genetic/hereditary homosexuality
  63. this drug was used to prevent miscarraige, but supposedly had the side effects of increased cancer rates for women and increased chance of bi/homosexuality in men:
  64. Prenatal stress and nicotine use experienced by an expectant mother (mostly in 1st trimester) show increased chance for what?