alteration in renal function
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A 25-year-old female is diagnosed with urinary tract obstruction. She is expected to have
hydronephrosis and a decreased glomerular filtration rate caused by:
increased hydrostatic pressure in the glomerular capsule.
2. The most common type of renal stone is composed of:
3. The most important factor in renal calculus formation is:
4. A 24-year-old female is diagnosed with renal calculus that is causing obstruction. Which of the following symptoms would she most likely experience?
5. A 35-year-old male received a traumatic brain injury in a motor vehicle accident. CT scan
revealed a lesion above the pontine micturition center. Which of the following would be expected
6. A 75-year-old male complains to his physician of loss of urine with cough, sneezing, or
laughing. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
7. Mechanisms for defense against urinary pathogens in women include:
acid pH of urine.
8. A 25-year-old female presents with burning urination. She was diagnosed with a urinary tract infection. Which of the following organisms is most likely infecting her urinary tract?
9. A 28-year-old female presents with fever, chills, and flank pain. She is diagnosed with
pyelonephritis. Her infection is located in the:
10. The most common condition associated with the development of acute pyelonephritis is:
urinary tract obstruction
11. A 15-year-old male was diagnosed with pharyngitis. Eight days later he developed acute glomerulonephritis. Which of the following is the most likely cause of this disease?
12. Acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis is primarily caused by:
antigen-antibody complex deposition in the glomerular capillaries and inflammatorydamage.
14. A 30-year-old male is demonstrating haematuria with red blood cell casts and proteinuria exceeding 3 to 5 g/day. The most probable diagnosis is:
15. A 45-year-old male presents with oliguria. He is diagnosed with chronic glomerulonephritis.
Oliguria is related to:
thickening of the glomerular membrane and decreased renal blood flow.
16. A 15-year-old female presents with flank pain, irritability, malaise, and fever. Tests reveal glomerulonephritis. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
17. If nephrotic syndrome is not caused initially by kidney disease, it is termed _____ nephritic syndrome
18. A 54-year-old female is diagnosed with nephrotic syndrome. Which of the following is a common symptom of this disease?
19. A 25-year-old male has a severe kidney obstruction leading to removal of the affected kidney.
Compensatory hypertrophy of the remaining kidney
20. A 45-year-old female presents with hypertension, anorexia, nausea and vomiting, and anaemia.
inadequate production of erythropoietin
21. A 42-year-old female is diagnosed with chronic kidney disease. Treatment includes restricting
22. Bone fractures are a risk factor in chronic renal failure because:
the kidneys fail to activate vitamin D.
23. A 42-year-old male is involved in a motor vehicle accident during which he loses a lot of blood
inadequate renal blood flow
24. A 35-year-old female was severely burned and is hospitalised. She is now suffering from acute tubular necrosis. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
25. A 56-year-old male presents with flank pain and polyuria. Tests reveal that he has an enlarged prostate. Which of the following types of acute kidney injury is most likely to occur?
26. A 60-year-old male is diagnosed with acute kidney injury. Which of the following lab values would be most consistent with this diagnosis?
Elevated plasma creatinine level
27. Wilms tumors are found in the:
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