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At end of the war, the US and Soviets gave some support to who in China?
· nationalists (limited). Soviets gave some limited support to communists. Neither soviets or Americans gave all out support.
US wanted to support Kai-Shek through
peaceful means. Patrick Hurley attempted this during the war, but was not successful. He would resign upon coming home because he did not come to any agreement between nationalists and communists.
After failure of Hurley mission, Roosevelt decided to send
· George Marshall (Marshall mission). Marshall came home 1947 and became Sec of State. He knew first hand what was going on in china, and shaped American policy accordingly.
Dean Acheson replaced Marshall when?
In China Marshall tried to reach agreement between communists and nationalists
- · Americans didn't really have any power, so Marshall had few cards to play
- · Might send in more troops. this would involve a major commitment in china which all Americans wanted to avoid.
- · Hoped nationalists could make a government with limited support.
Loss of China by 1949.
· Republican members bashed Truman administration for losing China. Truman tried to make the point that you can't lose what you don't own. Americans in China were and have always been minimal influence. If US gave more support to nationalists, soviets may have given more support to communists.
Problem was the Nationalists were very corrupt.
- · Would sell arms to the communists to gain revenue. Nevertheless, Marshall viewed Kai-Chek as indispensable. Would not depose him and find another leader.
- · If you remove a leader and pick a new one, you have a major commitment.
At first it seemed the Marshall would have some success.
In early 1946 he orchestrated 2 minor agreements. Nationalists and communists would stop fighting, and would merge military forces into national Chinese military. Did not happen because Mao and Chang wanted sole control.
By June 1946 and into 1947, civil war was getting worse.
- Chang was fighting communist Chinese. It looked like Chang would win (George Marshall thought he
- never would). Marshall left china Jan 1947 slightly failing. Not really personal failure because Marshall did not have to power to affect the situation.
There was a basic choice by 1947
- · 1 option was US would intervene in mainland china to help chang defeat communists
- · 2nd option was the US would recognize limits of power, and withdraw, and let Chiang and mao fight it out.
- · In practice, the US did both. Limited amount of assistance to nationalists. Truman found himself in a political bind.
1947 Truman gave Truman doctrine for Greece and turkey. this happened in midst of Chinese war.
- · He sold his policy as part of a global struggle between freedom and totalitarianism. If world was neatly divided between democracy and communism, you only have one real choice. you have to support anyone who was trying to
- defend their country from communism. The question is why not do the same for china as your doing for Greece and turkey?
- · In this context, Truman administration gave some support to Kai-Shek, recognizing that support being sufficient in beating communists was not great.
Arms embargo happened based on marshals recommendation in 1946, this was lifted in 1947.
- · Truman sent a mission to china, that came back saying there should be an increase in
- American advisors in china. At the same time, don't suggest more military fighting communists. This was rejected by marshall. Later marshall and Truman were criticized for not following the recommendation.
Congress passed china aid act 1948-
· To win republican support for marshall plan, Truman accepted this act. For marshall, Truman, and Acheson, Europe was much more important than China. In this context the Chinese civil war continued, and led to defeat of nationalists. By 1949 it looked that nationalists had lost. Truman administration tried to disengage from china.
To justify this policy, published a "white paper" that contained documents talking about problems in china.
- · In introduction sec of state Acheson wrote "civil war in china was beyond control of US. within reasonable limits, US could not change the result".
- Nationalists lost their own war.
Dec 8, 1949 - Chiang fled with other nationalists from mainland to Taiwan.
· He claimed control of China. Americans recognized Chang. Mao had control of Beijing and claimed control of china. Political implications of civil war continued.
At Potsdam, American gov began to anticipate victory against japan
Potsdam declaration was administered that Japanese surrender or else a massive new weapon would be used. Douglas MacArthur would go to japan and incorporate American occupation policy.
Summarized in document Aug 29, 1945 saying ultimate objectives
- · ensure japan will not again become menace to US or World
- · Peaceful and responsible gov
- · Support objectives of US
- · Americans want a democratic government, but you have to have acceptance by the people. Hoped Japanese would embrace western style democracy.
Allies created 2 groups :
· far eastern commission and allied commission for japan. Implemented dec. 1945. Were simply advisors, real power was with MacArthur.
Same for D's for American policy in Japan
- · Demilitarization
- · Decartalization
- · Deprogramming
- · Democratization
· after japan surrendered Sept 2, Americans wanted to have nothing to use for aggression. Drafted a new constitution for japan including article 9. committed Japan to never have a military force in the future. MacArthur basically became Japanese emperor, imposed in a very imperial way what he and Americans wanted to do in Japan. Ironic huh?
- · - getting rid of giant corporations in japan. Zaibatzu.
- · At a struggle to break down japan while keeping them more economically powerful
- than communist China.
- · Corporatoins revived as US started to move away (Toyota)
- · get rid of militaristic leadership. MacArthur imported 10 million bibles. Thought if only we could get them to read bibles, they would be Christian and
- 'civilized'. Tokyo war crime trials targeted some of the war criminals. would not be applied to emperor. Was allowed to stay there, while power was stripped.
- · Emperor would be constitutional monarch.
- wouldn’t have real power. Hopefully a democratic Japanese government. Elections were help april 1946. conservative parties won in these elections. liberals and progressives would soon adopt name democrats. Liberal democratic party would emerge. Liberal Democrats think more like republicans in American context. were not really left wing at all. By
- end of 1940s, as policy was shifting, Truman administration executed a peace treaty. In june 1950, a peace treaty with japan seemed more possible. US wanted a strong hold in asia in form
- of Japan. Truman opened negotiations with other powers to get peace treaty with japan. This task was assigned to John Dulles.
Sept 8, 1951 -
- · peace treaty between US and Japan was concluded in San Francisco was supported by
- most nations (soviets were not too fond of it). in addition US and Japan made a security treaty to bind two countries together. Dulles now wanted to remove aricle 9 so Japanese could be ally. Yoshida Shigeru vetoed Dulles suggestion. Japanese realized if they remained demilitarized they could depend on US for security and focus on economics.
During War china was partner and Japan was enemy,
· by 1950s they reversed.