sanitation

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Author:
kenleyc
ID:
110451
Filename:
sanitation
Updated:
2011-10-27 01:14:30
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food microbiology
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Food Sanitation
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  1. Problem in rice
    bacillus cereus - emetic form
  2. Rod, spore former, found in soil
    bacillus cereus
  3. Corn, potatoes, vegetables, meat products
    forms exotoxins
    bacillus cereus
  4. exotoxin elaborate in food
    emetic form
  5. exotoxin elaborated in GI tract
    diarrheal form
  6. Diarrhea, no vomiting
    bacillus cereus - diarrheal form
  7. nausea, vomiting, no diarrhea
    emetic form
  8. Onset: 6-15 hrs Duration: 6-12 hrs
    bacillus cereus gastroenteritis
  9. salads containing egg, chicken, tuna, macaroni, deli meats
    heavily handled foods
    staphylococcal gastroenteritis
  10. NVCD drop in body temp, sweating
    staphylococcal gastroenteritis
  11. Humans and animals - skin, hide, hair, feathers, mucous mem., pimples, infected wounds, respiratory system
    staphylococcus aureus
  12. causes mastitis in cattle
    staphylococcus aureus
  13. 80% of poultry carry this
    staph
  14. produces exotoxins that are enterotoxins
    staphylococcus aureus
  15. Onset: 1-6 hrs Duration: 1-2 days
    staphylococcal gastroenteritis
  16. MRSA causing
    staphylococcal gastroenteritis
  17. exotoxin heat stable
    staphylococcus aureus
  18. salt tolerant
    staphylococcus aureus
  19. will grow at Aw .85
    staphylococcus aureus
  20. ETEC
    Enterotoxigenic e.coli
  21. EIEC
    enteroinvasive e. coli
  22. EPEC
    enteropathogenic e.coli
  23. EAggEC
    enteroaggregative e. coli
  24. EHEC
    enterogemorrhagic e. coli
  25. Traveler's diarrhea
    enterotoxigenic e.coli
  26. bacilliary dysentary
    enteroinvasive e.coli
  27. infant diarrhea
    enteroaggregative e.coli
  28. spore former, found in soil and carried in intestines of animals and humans
    clostridium perfringens
  29. Usually do not have nausea, fever, vomiting, but do have diarrhea
    clostridium perfringens gastroenteritis
  30. grows without oxygen and can produce a deadly toxin
    clostridium botulinum
  31. untreated garlic/oil mixures
    clostridium botulinum
  32. toxin mediated infection
    hemorrhagic colitis
  33. found in ground beef and contaminated produce
    escherichia coli
  34. HUS
    hemolytic uremic syndrome
  35. ground beef should be cooked at
    • 155 - servsafe
    • 160 - USDA
    • 165 - at risk pop
  36. e. coli shiga toxin producing is found primarily
    in the GI tract of cattle
  37. escherichia coli produces endotoxins in the GI tract called
    shiga-toxins
  38. living organisms that need a host to survive
    parasites
  39. hazard to food or water
    parasites
  40. Nematodes are
    Roundworms
  41. Anisakiasis simplex are
    nematodes
  42. Raw or undercooked: Herring, cod, halibut, mackerel, pacific salmon, squid
    Anisakisis
  43. tingling in throat, coughing up worms
    anisakisis
  44. transmitted via larvae in muscle of fish
    anisakis simplex
  45. freezing for several days kills larvae
    anisakis simplex
  46. Trichinellosis
    Trichinella spiralis
  47. larvae containing cyst in pork muscle
    trichinella spiralis
  48. 3 stages of trichinellosis
    intestinal phase, muscle-invasion phase, convalescent phase
  49. Onset: 2-28 days
    Duration: 1-6 wks
    Trichinellosis
  50. Swine, bear, marine mammals
    trichinella spiralis
  51. prevention for trichinellosis
    cooking, salting, curing, freezing, irradiation
  52. Cestodes
    tapeworms
  53. Taenia saginatta found in
    cattle
  54. Taenia solium
    found in swine
  55. Taeniasis is a _____ infection
    intestinal
  56. Cysticercosis is a ________ infection
    tissue
  57. loss of appetite
    abdominal pain
    weight loss
    Taeniasis
  58. seizures
    psychiatric disturbances
    headaches
    death
    cysticercosis
  59. head of the tapeworm
    scolex
  60. cryptosporidium parvum
    cryptosporidiosis
  61. untreated/contaminated water and produce
    cryptosporidium parvum
  62. transmitted via oocytes in feces
    cryptosporidium parvum
  63. cause of the largest waterborne outbreak in US 400,000 ppl infected
    cryptosporidium parvum
  64. resistant to chloronation
    cryptosporidium parvum
  65. problem in daycare centers
    rotavirus or cryptosporidium parvum
  66. Giardiasis
    Giardia duodenalis
  67. backpacker's nemesis
    Giardia duodenalis
  68. Scombroid poisoning toxin
    histamine
  69. Tuna, bonita, mackerel, mahi mahi
    Scombroid poisoning
  70. reddening face and neck
    sweating
    burning/tingling mouth
    headache
    scombroid poisoning
  71. Ciguatera fish poisoning toxin
    ciguatoxin
  72. Predatory reef fish
    ciguatoxin
  73. reversal hot/cold sensations
    tingling in fingers/toes
    joint muscle pain
    ciguatoxin
  74. toxins are heat stable
    shellfish poisoning
  75. PSP
    paralytic shellfish poisoning
  76. NSP
    neurotoxic shellfish poisoning
  77. ASP
    Amnesic shellfish poisoning
  78. Pacific & New England coast (colder water)
    paralytic shellfish poisoning
  79. PSP toxin
    saxitoxin
  80. Red Tide is associated with:
    • Karenia brevis
    • Gambierdiscus toxicus
  81. HAB
    harmful algal blooms
  82. neurotoxins are produced by
    consumption of algae
  83. karenia brevis and gambierdiscus produce which toxin
    saxitoxin
  84. Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning toxin
    Brevetoxin
  85. Only toxin not associated with scallops
    brevetoxin
  86. toxins associated with hot/cold sensations
    • brevetoxin
    • ciguatoxin
  87. Amnesic shellfish poisoning toxin
    domoic acid
  88. warmer waters of gulf and caribbean
    NSP - brevetoxin
  89. waters of pacific NW & east of Canada
    ASP - domoic acid
  90. confusion
    memory loss
    disorientation
    seizure
    death
    domoic acid
  91. puffer fish produces this toxin
    tetrodotoxin
  92. potent neurotoxin
    tetrodotoxin
  93. Fugu poisoning
    tetrodotoxin - puffer fish
  94. parathesia, dizziness, resp. failure, tremors, convulsions, death
    fugu poisoning
  95. fungi commonly cause
    food spoilage and sometimes illness
  96. grows well in acidic food w/ low water activity
    mold
  97. True or false - cooking kills molds
    true - but not the toxin they produce
  98. toxins produced by molds are called
    mycotoxins
  99. produces aflatoxin
    Aspergillus flavus
  100. Turkey X disease
    aflatoxin
  101. aflatoxins cause
    liver cancer
  102. FDA guidelines for moldy foods
    hard food - cut off mold plus 1 inch
  103. name 3 mycotoxins
    • aflatoxin
    • achratoxin
    • psoralen
  104. Spoils food, not harmful
    yeast
  105. produces slime layer
    yeast
  106. true or false - mushroom toxins are destroyed by cooking
    false
  107. found in pottery, pipes, crystal, paint
    Lead
  108. pipes, containers
    copper
  109. gray enamelware
    cadmium
  110. galvanized containers
    zinc
  111. CRM
    corrosion resistant materials
  112. any material that maintains its original surface characteristics under prolonged exposure to heat, cold and chemicals
    corrosion resistant materials
  113. all food contact surfaces must be made out of
    CRM
  114. pesticides can contaminate by
    • surface contamination during production
    • plant uptakes pesticide during prod
    • surface contam. by application of pesticide in food service
  115. GRAS
    generally recognized as safe
  116. never use to mask spoilage
    use in recommended amounts
    food additives
  117. flavor inhancer
    5th basis taste "Umami"
    Monosodium Glutamate
  118. Symptoms of MSG allergy
    • flushing of face
    • dizziness
    • headache
    • dry burning throat
    • nausea
  119. potato of vegetable whitener
    sulfites
  120. antimicrobial
    sulfites
  121. used in wine, frozen shrimp, dired fruit, frozen potatoes
    sulfites
  122. if present in greater than this amount, it must be declared on label
    10 ppm
  123. alternatives for sulfites
    • citric acid
    • lactic acid
    • ascorbic acid
    • erythorbic acid
    • gluconic acid
    • acetic acid
  124. sulfite symptoms
    • nausea
    • diarrhea
    • breathing difficulties
    • coma
    • loss of conciousness
    • death
  125. Name 6 common food allergens
    • Milk and Dairy products
    • Eggs and egg products
    • Fish and shellfish
    • Wheat
    • Soy and soy products
    • Peanuts and tree nuts
  126. Name 6 symptoms of food allergies
    • Itching in and around mouth, face, scalp
    • Tightening in throat
    • wheezing or shortness of breath
    • swelling of face, eyes, hands, feet
    • gastrointestinal symptoms
    • loss of conciousness/death
  127. Ways to protect guests from food allergies
    • Be able to fully describe menu items
    • If you are unsure about an item, urge guest to order something else
    • Ensure cookware and utensils are allergen free
  128. Mode of infection of trichinellosis spiralis
    • Humans consume pork containing cyst
    • Larvae released from cyst into intestine
    • Larvae invade intestinal wall
    • Mature in 5-7 days
    • Reproduces
    • New larvae migrate through bloodstream to muscle
    • Larvae become encysted
  129. Histamie associated poisoning
    scombroid poisoning
  130. what is pasteurization
    heating to a very high temperature for a few seconds to kill pathogens
  131. Four reasons for rejecting canned foods
    • can is dented
    • can is swollen
    • has an off-odor
    • milky substance
  132. Produces neurotoxin that blocks the release of acetocoline in the nerve synapse causing an interruption of the electrical signal which results in paralysis
    clostridium botulinum
  133. T/F Vibrio parahaemolyticus causes low grade fever and chills
    True
  134. Three types of foodborne illness
    • Intoxication
    • Infection
    • Toxin mediated
  135. Clostridium perfringens is found in what habitat
    soil, air, water, gi tract
  136. Two forms produced by bacillus cereus
    • diarrheal
    • emetic
  137. T/F Symptoms of Staphylococcus aureus can occur in 6 hrs or less
    True
  138. What percent of the population carries Staphylococcus aureus?
    40%
  139. Clostridium botulinum is a ______ anaerobe
    Obligate
  140. Duration of clostridium botulinum
    10 days
  141. Name 3 foodborne intoxications
    • Clostridium botulinum
    • Staphylococcus aureus
    • Bacillus cereus
  142. T/F Bacillus cereus requires a high infective dose
    True
  143. What temperature do you cook rice to?
    135
  144. Known to cause mastitis in cattle
    staphylococcus aureus
  145. T/F Flies are carriers of stapylococcus aureus
    true
  146. Three ways of preventing transfer of staph
    • Restrict those with infection
    • Cover wounds
    • Wash hands
  147. Double vision is a symptom of what
    Botulism
  148. T/F Turkey is a common source for clostridium perfringens
    True
  149. Habitat of Ecoli
    GI tract of animals
  150. explosive diarrhea is a symptom of
    clostridium perfringens
  151. prevent clostridium perfringens by
    cooking dressing seperate from turkey
  152. 50% death rate without medical treatment
    clostridium botulinum
  153. What can cause histamine to form in tuna?
    Time-temp abuse
  154. List two cestodes and the animals they are associated with
    • taenia saginatta - cattle
    • taenia solium - swine
  155. Aspergillus flavis produces a mycotoxin called
    aflatoxin
  156. Three signs of yeast spoilage
    • slime layer
    • bubbles
    • alcohol odor
  157. Onset and duration of trichinella spiralis
    • Onset: 0-28 days
    • Duration: 1-6 wks
  158. Identify the bacteria:
    I do not need oxygen to grow
    I cause double vision and diff. swallowing
    I am commonly associated with produce from the soil
    I produce a deadly toxin when food is temperature abused
    clostridium botulinum
  159. Name 3 elements that are defense threats for establishments
    • Human
    • Interior
    • Exterior
  160. The type of enterovirulent E. coli that produces a disease similar to shigellosis
    enteroinvasive
  161. HUS causes
    kidney damage
  162. Describe in detail how to calibrate a bimetallic thermometer by the ice point method
    • Fill a large container with crushed ice and tap water
    • Stir well
    • Insert thermometer stem up to sensory area into the water for 30 seconds
    • Do not touch bottom or sides
    • Rotate calibration nut until it reads 32 F
  163. BP drops ___ for every ____ft increase in elevation
    • 1 F
    • 550
  164. Used to measure temp of surface of food and equipment
    Infrared thermometer
  165. This type of thermometer is used to monitor internal temperature of a hamburger patty
    thermocouple thermometer with penetration probe
  166. Describe the steps in the boiling point method for caliberating a thermometer
    • put potable water in a pot
    • boil the water
    • place thermometer in the boiling water, no touching the bottom or side of pot
    • make sure the sensor area is submerged for at least 30 seconds
    • Hold thermometer with wrench and rotate until reading says 212 F
  167. What is the contaminant in scombroid poisoning and how does the product become contaminated. What is the implicated food? How can scombroid poisoning be prevented?
    Scombroid is a histamine. The histadine gets turned into a histamine through a spoilage bacteria called a proteus. The implicated foods are tuna, bonita, and mahi-mahi. Prevention is to control time and temperature abuse during storage and preparation
  168. Describe in detail the disease syndrome caused by Trichinella spiralis (onset, symptoms, and duration)
    Onset is 2 - 28 days, and duration is 1 -6 weeks. There are three stages of Trichinella spiralis. The first is the intestinal phase - nausea, vomiting, and ab cramps. Second phase is the muscle invasion in which the larvae matures in 5 - 7 days and causes edema, muscle pain, and remittent fever. Third is the convalescent phase which is a very slow recovery.
  169. Check temp of soup with a(n)
    immersion probe
  170. List the parts of a bimetallic thermometer
    • temp head
    • calibration nut
    • holding pin
    • stem
    • sensing area
    • dimple
  171. List the stages in the flow of food
    • purchasing
    • receiving
    • storing
    • freezing/holding
    • preping
    • cooking
    • cooling
    • reheating
    • serve

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