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  1. Contiguity
    The association between stimulus and response (5-R) forms because they occur close together in time & space.
  2. Contingent Consequences
    The organism's response leads to a consequence upon which behavior becomes contingent in the future. Law of Effect.
  3. Generalization
    Different situations occasion different responses based on the contingencies of reinforcement (e.g.: a child may learn to say "dog" when it sees the drawing of a rottweiler in a book. If the child later says "dog" when it sees a schnauzer on the street, it has generalized between the two distinct stimuli (the rottweiler and the schnauzer)).
  4. Discrimination
    Opposite of generalization. Different consequences may follow the same behavior in different situations (e.g.: when you tell a ribald tale to friends at a party, but refrain from doing so at a church gathering).
  5. Extinction
    Reinforcement of a response is discontinued. Discontinuation of reinforcement leads to the progressive decline in the occurrence of a previously reinforced response.
  6. Recovery
    • Refers to recovery and response strength after extinction. A phenomenon first seen in Pavlovian
    • conditioning and then later discovered in memory functioning. The general pattern of spontaneous recovery found in Pavlovian conditioning in animals
    • essentially encompasses two varying habits learned by the animal where there is an initial overpowering presence of habit 2 over habit 1 and then over time,
    • habit 1 regains empowerment over habit 2. This is parallel to learning in human memory.
  7. Conditioning
    • A form of psychological learning during which an individual modifies the occurrence and form of its own behavior due to the association of the behavior with a stimulus. Types:
    • 1. Classical Conditioning
    • a. Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) → Unconditioned Response (UCR): an unlearned reaction to UCS occurs w/o previous conditioning.
    • b. Conditioned Stimulus (CS): previously natural stimulus that has acquired the capacity to evoke a CR
    • through conditioning.Conditioned Response (CR):
    • learned reaction to CS that occurs b/c of previous conditioning.

    • Operant Conditioning ("respondent conditioning): modification of "voluntary behavior."
    • Examples:
    • USC (food) → UCR (salivate)
    • UCS (food) + CS (bell) → UCR (salivate)
    • CS (bell) → CR (salivate)
  8. Stimulus Response
    Behavior manifests as a result of the interplay between stimulus and response.
  9. Reinforcers
    Consequences of responding that produce increases in behavior.
  10. Modeling
    • Learning through direct observation or vicarious experience: observation of models can either
    • strengthen or weaken a behavior.
    • Types: Live models, symbolic models, & verbal instructions
    • Processes: attention, retention, motor reproduction, motivation
Card Set:
2011-10-20 03:42:33

Prelims-Learning Section
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