Prelims-Learning

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Prelims-Learning
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  1. Contiguity
    The association between stimulus and response (5-R) forms because they occur close together in time & space.
  2. Contingent Consequences
    The organism's response leads to a consequence upon which behavior becomes contingent in the future. Law of Effect.
  3. Generalization
    Different situations occasion different responses based on the contingencies of reinforcement (e.g.: a child may learn to say "dog" when it sees the drawing of a rottweiler in a book. If the child later says "dog" when it sees a schnauzer on the street, it has generalized between the two distinct stimuli (the rottweiler and the schnauzer)).
  4. Discrimination
    Opposite of generalization. Different consequences may follow the same behavior in different situations (e.g.: when you tell a ribald tale to friends at a party, but refrain from doing so at a church gathering).
  5. Extinction
    Reinforcement of a response is discontinued. Discontinuation of reinforcement leads to the progressive decline in the occurrence of a previously reinforced response.
  6. Recovery
    • Refers to recovery and response strength after extinction. A phenomenon first seen in Pavlovian
    • conditioning and then later discovered in memory functioning. The general pattern of spontaneous recovery found in Pavlovian conditioning in animals
    • essentially encompasses two varying habits learned by the animal where there is an initial overpowering presence of habit 2 over habit 1 and then over time,
    • habit 1 regains empowerment over habit 2. This is parallel to learning in human memory.
  7. Conditioning
    • A form of psychological learning during which an individual modifies the occurrence and form of its own behavior due to the association of the behavior with a stimulus. Types:
    • 1. Classical Conditioning
    • a. Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) → Unconditioned Response (UCR): an unlearned reaction to UCS occurs w/o previous conditioning.
    • b. Conditioned Stimulus (CS): previously natural stimulus that has acquired the capacity to evoke a CR
    • through conditioning.Conditioned Response (CR):
    • learned reaction to CS that occurs b/c of previous conditioning.

    • Operant Conditioning ("respondent conditioning): modification of "voluntary behavior."
    • Examples:
    • USC (food) → UCR (salivate)
    • UCS (food) + CS (bell) → UCR (salivate)
    • CS (bell) → CR (salivate)
  8. Stimulus Response
    Behavior manifests as a result of the interplay between stimulus and response.
  9. Reinforcers
    Consequences of responding that produce increases in behavior.
  10. Modeling
    • Learning through direct observation or vicarious experience: observation of models can either
    • strengthen or weaken a behavior.
    • Types: Live models, symbolic models, & verbal instructions
    • Processes: attention, retention, motor reproduction, motivation
  11. Mediation
    Thought before executing action, internal, mental activity. Behavior controlled by cognitive processes.
  12. Self-Regulation
    • Process where individuals personally activate and sustain behaviors, cognitions, and affects, which are systematically oriented toward attaining goals or goal-directed behaviors. Performance standards are learned vicariously or through direct experience, and become the basis of self-evaluation.
    • ** Bandura's answer to what controls behavior (in contrast to the S-R view). Self-regulation of behavior: Behavior regulated by one's own performance standards, moral codes, or imagination.
    • 1. Goal setting
    • 2. Self-instruction
    • 3. Self-monitoring
    • 4. Self-judgment
    • 5. Self-reinforcement
  13. Self-Efficacy
    • One's personal beliefs concerning ones capabilities to organize and implement actions necessary to reach targeted performance levels. People are more likely to
    • engage in behaviors when they feel they are capable of executing those behaviors. The most central and pervasive mechanism of personal agency.
    • Affected by mood, memory, past experience, and emotions. Affects behavior in terms of choice activities, effort and persistence, and learning and
    • achievement.
    • Influences:
    • * Previous successes and failures.
    • * The perception that success is possible.
    • * The observation of other's successes and failures.
  14. Expectations
    People have expectations for the consequences of their behavior based on observation of the consequences of other's behavior, various experience. Outcome expectations: beliefs about anticipated outcomes of actions and are key in self-efficacy.
  15. Expectancy-value systems
    • "Included in the Model of Motivation which provides a Task Value (summation of values attached to a task minus costs: E*V=M) which has certain characteristics ) (1) Interest, (2) Utility, and (3)
    • Attainment. Expectancy: perceived probability of achieving a goal."
    • Value: what a goal is worth to a person.
    • An easy goal has high expectancy, but low value.
    • A difficult goal has low expectancy, but high values for the person.
    • An achievement reflects both approach (hope for success) and avoidance (fear of failure) tendencies.
    • Also refers to just goal orientation, if expectancy is high but value is low, then easy goal. Difficult goals have low expectancy but high value. Behavior therefore depends on how much the person values the outcome and their expectation of attaining the outcome.
  16. Inhibition/Disinhibition
    • A function of modeling: observing the consequences of the model inhibits and disinhibits previously learned behavior b/c models from expectations in observers that similar consequences will occur if they model the actions.
    • Inhibition: makes the person less likely to perform a behavior for which they have seen others punished.
    • Disinhibition: makes it more likely that a behavior will occur for which a person has seen others reinforced.
  17. Facilitation
    A function of modeling, modeled actions that serve as social prompt for observers to behave accordingly. They create motivated inducements for observers to model actions (e.g. going along with the crowd).
  18. Expert-coping models
    • Coping Model: Used for fear reduction. Serves to increase self-efficacy by using coping models that initially demonstrate typical fears and deficiencies to observers, but gradually improve performance and gain confidence in their capacities. Enhances learning & self-efficacy for observer.
    • Mastery Models: Those who display perfect performance and complete confidence at the beginning. Demonstrate mastery learning. Not as effective as expert-coping models.
  19. Information Processing Theory
    • Theory which addresses how thoughts (1) begin, (2) are
    • organized, (3) are remembered, and (4) expressed.
  20. Types of memory
    • Implicit (procedural): Learning: memory for routines that remain hidden until prompted (like a
    • baby remembering how to move a mobile)
    • Explicit (declarative): Learning: can be recalled on demand.
    • (Berger, 2010)
  21. 3 components of IP Model
    • 1. sensory register (SR): where sensations become perceptions.short-term memory (STM) or
    • 2. working memory: a few seconds; where conscious mental activity occurs.
    • 3. long-term memory (LTM): The keys to this type of memory:
    • a. Storage: virtually limitless capacity
    • b. Retrieval: a control process. It's easier for more emotional experiences.
  22. Metacognition
    • "One of 3 higher order processes (along with transfer & problem solving ) that applies problem solving processes to learning tasks.
    • * Knowledge students have about learning & their ability to use that knowledge to self-regulate their learning.
    • * Requires both declarative & procedural knowledge
    • * Related to both active learning and alignment.
    • * Knowledge about the nature & limitation of memory & memory requirements of certain tasks, strategies & learning & remembering information stored as declarative knowledge.Students' ability to set goals & to automatically monitor progress relative to goals →represented as procedural knowledge
    • * Self-regulate: self regulating learning is taking an active role in guiding and controlling one's own learning.
    • * It involves:Setting appropriate goals
    • * Selecting effective learning approaches
    • * Monitoring progress toward these goals.
  23. Attention
    "One of the 2 Selective-Perception Processes that connects sensory memory to information in working memory. Its two parts are (1) attention, and (2) perception."
  24. Perception (aka pattern recognition)
    "One of the 2 Selective-Perception Processes that connects sensory memory to information in working memory. Its two parts are (1) attention, and (2) perception." Information must be held in the sensory register and compared with knowledge in LTM.
  25. Encoding
    • "Process by which cognitive units are organized into other cognitive units. More chunking means fewer bits in working memory."
    • * Influenced by:
    • ***Organization (hierarchy, mnemonics, mental imagery)
    • ***Elaboration (expanding upon and linking to prior knowledge)
    • ***Schemata
  26. Compilation
    • "A psychological process that creates new procedural knowledge from declarative knowledge. Parts (1) proceduralization (2) composition." Skill learning. Declarative knowledge works to slowly create new knowledge.
    • Stages:
    • a) Cognitive
    • b) Association
    • c) Procedural knowledge
  27. Rehearsal
    A learning strategy of assigning meaning to stimulus input. It promotes transfer to LTM by allowing information to be retained in STM/WM longer.
  28. Pattern Matching
    A process of assigning meaning to stimulus input (perception). Selectively attending to info that fits with familiar patterns in LTM, therefore influencing all stages of info processing to the extent of biasing learning. Equating input in the sensory register with something hat is known in LTM & active in WM. Evidence of LTS operating downward on the system.
  29. Spread-of-Activation
    "Process that activates nodes. When the activation threshold is reached the information in that symbolic node becomes available to working memory for retrieval."

    (connectionist model, ACT) spread refers to notion that one memory structure may activate another structure adjacent (related ) to it; activation of one node spreads to related nodes; memory structures vary in their level of activism; not separate structure, but one memory with different activation states, active or inactive.
  30. Schema
    Definitions"Piaget: a schema includes both a category of knowledge and the process of obtaining that knowledge IP: A mental model of a person, object or situation. Cognitive maps, images, concept schema, event scripts, and mental models."
  31. Declarative Knowledge
    "Type of knowledge that has as its most basic unit a chunk or cognitive unit. It is further divided into episodic and semantic knowledge."
  32. Procedural Knowledge
    "Type of knowledge that is manifested by automatized performance."
  33. Modal-Memory Models
    "Model of human memory that suggests that there is a long term memory store, a short term memory store, and a sensory store."
  34. Connectionist Memory Models to Learning
    A type of memory model. Characterized by a network of nodes, associations, and layers.
  35. Memory Structures
    Sensory memory, STM, LTM. Concepts of memory structures- web-like network?
  36. Levels of Processing Transfer
    • "Model that describes memory recall as a function of depth of processing (Craik & Lockhart 1972; "everything is LTM, it’s just a question of how to access material.” Replaced by connectionist models & no longer really used. Phonemic: shallow processing;
    • Semantic: deep processing (more durable memory trace); Contradicts Atkinson-Shiffrin model"
    • Type 1 Processing: Part of Levels of Processing that is
    • • Shallow, Automatic, Effortless at a sensory/phonemic level
    • • (Analogous to Modal Model working memory)
    • • Recencyeffects

    • Type II Processing: Part of Levels of Processing that is
    • • Deeper,
    • Analytical, “Higher brain” at a semantic level

    • • (Analogous to Modal Model LTM)
    • • Primacy effects

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