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2011-10-21 00:09:29

Prelims-Learning Section
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  1. Contiguity
    The association between stimulus and response (5-R) forms because they occur close together in time & space.
  2. Contingent Consequences
    The organism's response leads to a consequence upon which behavior becomes contingent in the future. Law of Effect.
  3. Generalization
    Different situations occasion different responses based on the contingencies of reinforcement (e.g.: child-dog).
  4. Discrimination
    Opposite of generalization. Different consequences may follow the same behavior in different situations (e.g.: ribald story).
  5. Extinction
    Reinforcement of a response is discontinued which leads to the progressive decline in the occurrence of a previously reinforced response.
  6. Negative Reinforcement
    Behavior is strengthened by the consequence of the stopping or avoiding of a negative condition.
  7. Recovery
    • Refers to response strength after extinction. A phenomenon first seen in Pavlovian conditioning and then later discovered in memory functioning. Over time, habit 1 regains empowerment over habit 2.
  8. Conditioning
    • A form of psychological learning during which an individual modifies the occurrence and form of its own behavior due to the association of the behavior with a stimulus. Types:
    • 1. Classical Conditioning Examples:
    • USC (food) → UCR (salivate)
    • UCS (food) + CS (bell) → UCR (salivate)
    • CS (bell) → CR (salivate)
    • 2. Operant Conditioning ("respondent conditioning): modification of "voluntary behavior."
  9. Stimulus Response
    Behavior manifests as a result of the interplay between stimulus and response.
  10. Reinforcers
    Consequences of responding that produce increases in behavior.
  11. Modeling
    • Direct observational or vicarious learning which either
    • strengthen or weaken a behavior.
  12. Mediation
    Thought before executing action, internal, mental activity. Phobic behavior can controlled by this cognitive processes.
  13. Self-Regulation
    • Controlling our own behavior. Process where individuals personally activate and sustain behaviors, cognitions, and affects, which are systematically oriented toward attaining goals or goal-directed behaviors and becomes the basis of self-evaluation.
    • Bandura's answer to the S-R view.
  14. Self-Efficacy
    • One's personal beliefs concerning ones capabilities to organize and implement actions necessary to reach targeted performance levels.
    • Influences:
    • * Previous successes and failures.
    • * The perception that success is possible.
    • * The observation of other's successes and failures.
  15. Expectations
    Anticipated onsequences of one's behavior based on observation of the consequences of other's behavior and various experience. Beliefs about anticipated outcomes of actions and are key in self-efficacy.
  16. Expectancy-value systems
    • "Included in the Model of Motivation which provides a Task Value (E*V=M) which has
    • Certain characteristics: (1) Interest, (2) Utility, and (3) Attainment.
    • Expectancy: perceived probability of achieving a goal."
  17. Disinhibition
    A reduction in fear by observing a model's behavior go unpunished in a feared activity.
  18. Inhibition
    A response which makes the person less likely to perform a behavior for which they have seen others punished.
  19. Inhibition/Disinhibition
    • A function of modeling where oberver sees consequences on other and think that similar consequences will occur if they model the actions.
  20. Facilitation
    A function of modeling, modeled actions that serve as social prompt for observers to behave accordingly. They create motivated inducements for observers to model actions (e.g. going along with the crowd).
  21. Expert-coping models
    • Coping Model: Used for fear reduction. Serves to increase self-efficacy by using coping models that initially demonstrate typical fears and deficiencies to observers, but gradually improve performance and gain confidence in their capacities. Enhances learning & self-efficacy for observer.
    • Mastery Models: Those who display perfect performance and complete confidence at the beginning. Demonstrate mastery learning. Not as effective as expert-coping models.
  22. Information Processing Theory
    • Theory which addresses how thoughts (1) begin, (2) are
    • organized, (3) are remembered, and (4) expressed.
  23. Types of memory
    • Implicit (procedural) Learning: memory for routines that remain hidden until prompted (like a baby remembering how to move a mobile)
    • Explicit (declarative) Learning: can be recalled on demand. (Berger, 2010)
  24. 3 components of IP Model
    • 1. sensory register (SR): where sensations become perceptions.short-term memory (STM) or
    • 2. working memory: a few seconds; where conscious mental activity occurs.
    • 3. long-term memory (LTM): The keys to this type of memory:
    • a. Storage: virtually limitless capacity
    • b. Retrieval: a control process. It's easier for more emotional experiences.
  25. Metacognition
    • "One of 3 higher order processes (along with transfer & problem solving ) that applies problem solving processes to learning tasks.
    • * Knowledge students have about learning & their ability to use that knowledge to self-regulate their learning.
    • * Requires both declarative & procedural knowledge
    • * Self-regulating learning is taking an active role in guiding and controlling one's own learning. It involves:
    • ** Setting appropriate goals
    • ** Selecting effective learning approaches
    • ** Monitoring progress toward these goals.
  26. Attention
    • "One of the 2 Selective-Perception processes that connects sensory memory to STM/WM whereby selective concentration is used to pay attention to one part of the environment while ignoring others."
  27. Perception (aka pattern recognition)
    "One of the 2 Selective-Perception Processes that connects sensory memory to information in working memory." Information must be held in the sensory register and compared with knowledge in LTM Influenced by expectation.
  28. Encoding
    • "Process by which cognitive units are organized into other cognitive units. More chunking means fewer bits in working memory."
    • * Influenced by:
    • ***Organization (hierarchy, mnemonics, mental imagery)
    • ***Elaboration (expanding upon and linking to prior knowledge)
    • ***Schemata
  29. Compilation
    • "A psychological process that creates new procedural knowledge from declarative knowledge. Parts (1) proceduralization (2) composition." Declarative knowledge works to slowly create new knowledge.
    • Stages: a) Cognitive b) Association c) Procedural knowledge
  30. Rehearsal
    A learning strategy of assigning meaning to stimulus input. It promotes transfer to LTM by allowing information to be retained in STM/WM longer. Information which is sustained long enough in STM will eventually be stored in LTM. If the information is used often enough, it becomes permanently encoded.
  31. Pattern Matching
    • A process of assigning meaning to stimulus input (perception). Selectively attending to info that fits with familiar patterns in LTM, therefore influencing all stages of info processing to the extent of biasing learning. Equating input in the sensory register with something hat is known in LTM & active in WM.
  32. Spread-of-Activation
    "Process that activates nodes. When the activation threshold is reached the information in that symbolic node becomes available to working memory for retrieval."

    (connectionist model, ACT) spread refers to notion that one memory structure may activate another structure adjacent (related ) to it; activation of one node spreads to related nodes; memory structures vary in their level of activism; not separate structure, but one memory with different activation states, active or inactive.
  33. Schema
    Definitions"Piaget: a schema includes both a category of knowledge and the process of obtaining that knowledge IP: A mental model of a person, object or situation."
  34. Declarative Knowledge
    "Type of knowledge that has as its most basic unit a chunk or cognitive unit. It is further divided into episodic and semantic knowledge."
  35. Procedural Knowledge
    "Type of knowledge that is manifested by automatized performance."
  36. Modal-Memory Models
    "Model of human memory that suggests that there is a long term memory store, a short term memory store, and a sensory store."
  37. Connectionist Memory Models to Learning
    A type of memory model. Characterized by a network of nodes, associations, and layers.
  38. Memory Structures
    Sensory memory, STM, LTM. Concepts of memory structures- web-like network?
  39. Intrinsic/Extrinsic Motivations
    • Part of Self-Determination Theory which refers to Motivation (a part of which is) "Attainment Value (value which an individual attaches to intrinsic and extrinsic rewards from achievement at some level of excellence)"
    • Initiating an activity for its own sake because it is interesting and satisfying in itself, as opposed to doing an activity to obtain an external goal (extrinsic motivation).
  40. Goals Orientation
    Goals: "A psychological construct that projects projected outcome. It is a component of the expectancy-value model of motivation. There are 2 types: (1) performance, (2) mastery."
  41. Causal Attributions
    A subcomponent of Motivation (Weiner's Attribution Theory) that deals with "an explanation of perceived cause of events and behavior. There are 3 causal dimensions (parts): (1) Locus of causation (this is strongest effect) (2) Controllability (3) Stability."