Med Term Quiz4

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Med Term Quiz4
2011-10-20 00:23:22
Chapter 13 Med Term Quiz4

Endocrine System
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  1. Antagonistic
    Acting in opposition; manually opposin
  2. Electrolytes
    Mineral salts (sodium, potassium, and calcium) that carry an electrical charge in solution
  3. Glucagon
    Hormone produced by pancreatic alpha cells that increases the blood glucose level by stimulating the liver to change stored glycogen (a starch form of sugar) to glucose
  4. Glucose
    Simple sugar that is the end product of carbohydrate digestion
  5. Homeostasis
    Relative constancy or balance in the internal environment of the body, maintained by processes of feedback and adjustment in response to external or internal changes
  6. Hormones
    Chemical substances produced by specialized cells of the body that are released slowly in minute amounts directly into the bloodstream
  7. Insulin
    Hormone produced by pancreatic beta cells that acts to remove sugar (glucose) from the blood by promoting its storage in tissues as carbohydrates (glycogen)
  8. Sympathomimetic
    Agent that mimics the effects of the sympathetic nervous system
  9. Target
    Structure, organ, or tissue to which something is directed
  10. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
    • * Adrenal cortex - promotes secretions of some hormones by adrenal cortex, especially cortisol
    • * Hyposecretion is rare
    • * Hypersecretion causes Cushing disease
  11. Follicle - stimulating hormone (FSH)
    • * Ovaries - in females, stimulates egg production; increases secretion of estrogen
    • * Hyposecretion causes failure of sexual maturation
    • * Testes - in males, stimulates sperm production
    • * Hypersecretion has no known significant effects
  12. Growth hormone (GH) or somatotropin
    • * Bone, cartilage, liver, muscle, and other tissues - stimulates somatic growth; increases use of fats for energy
    • * Hyposecretion in children causes pituitary dwarfism
    • * Hypersecretion in children causes gigantism; hypersecretion in adults causes acromegaly
  13. Luteinizing hormone (LH)
    • * Ovaries - in females, promotes ovulation; stimulates production of estrogen and prgesterone
    • * Testes - in males, promotes secretion of testosterone
    • * Hyposecretion causes failure of sexual maturation
    • * Hypersecretion has no known significant effects
    • * Hyposecretion in nursing mothers causes poor lactation
  14. Prolactin
    • * Breast - in conjunction with other hormones, promotes lactation
    • * Hypersecretion in nursing mothers causes galactorrhea
  15. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
    • * Thyroid gland - stimulates secretion of thyroid hormone
    • * Hyposecretion in infants causes cretinism; hyposecretion in adults causes myxedema
    • * Hypersecretion causes Graves disease, indicated by exophthalmos
  16. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
    • * Kidney - increases water reabsorption (water returns to the blood)
    • * Hyposecretion causes diabetes insipidus
    • Hypersecretion causes syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH)
  17. Oxytocin
    • * Uterus - stimulates uterine contractions; initiates labor
    • * Breast - promotes milk secretion from the mammary glands
  18. Calcitonin
    • * Regulates calcium levels in the blood in conjunction with parathyroid hormone
    • * Secreted when calcium levels in the blood are high in order to maintain homeostasis
    • * The most significant effects are exerted in childhood when bones are growing and changing dramatically in mass, size, and shape
    • * At best, calcitonin is a weak hypocalcemic agent in adults
  19. Thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3)
    • * Increases energy production from all food types
    • * Increases rate of protein synthesis
    • * Hyposecretion in infants causes cretinism; hyposecretion in adults causes myxedema
    • * Hypersecretion causes Graves disease, indicated by exophthalmos
  20. Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
    • * Bones - increases the reabsorption of calcium and phosphate from bone to blood
    • * Kidneys - increases calcium absorption and phosphate excretion
    • * Small intestine - increases absorption of calcium and phosphate
    • * Hyposecretion causes tetany
    • * Hypersecretion causes osteitis fibrosa cystica
  21. Glucocorticoids (mainly cortisol)
    • * Body cells - promote gluconeogenesis; regulate metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats; and help depress inflammatory and immune responses
    • * Hyposecretion causes Addison disease
    • * Hypersecretion causes Cushing syndrome
  22. Mineralcorticoids (mainly aldosterone)
    • * Kidneys - increase blood levels of sodium and decrease blood levels of potassium in the kidneys
    • * Hyposecretion causes Addison disease
    • * Hypersecretion causes aldosterone
  23. Sex hormones (any of the androgens, estrogens, or related steroid hormones) produced by the ovaries, testes, and adrenal cortices
    • * In females, possibly responsible for female libido and source of estrogen after menopause (Otherwise, effects in adults are insignificant)
    • * Hypersecretion of adrenal androgen in females leads to virilism (development of male characteristics)
    • * Hypersecretion of adrenal estrogen and progestin secretion in males leads to feminization (development of feminine characteristics)
    • * Hyposecretion has no known significant effects
  24. Epinephrine and norepinephrine
    • * Sympathetic nervous system target organs - hormone effects mimic sympathetic nervous system activation (sypathomimetic), increase metabolic rate and heart rate, and raise blood pressure by promoting vasoconstriction
    • * Hyposecretion has no known significant effects
    • * Hypersecretion causes prolonged "fight-or-flight" reaction and hypertension
  25. Glucagon
    • * Liver and blood - raise blood glucose level by accelerating conversion of glycogen into glucose in the liver (glycogenolysis) and other nutrients into glucose in the liver (gluconeogenesis) and releasing glucose into blood (glycogen to glucose)
    • * Persistently low blood glucose levels (hypoglycemia) may be caused by deficiency in glucagon.
  26. Insulin
    • * Tissue cells - lowers blood glucose level by accelerating glucose transport into cells and the use of that glucose for energy production (glucose to glycogen)
    • * Hyposecretion of insulin causes diabetes mellitus
    • * Hypersecretion of insulin causes hyperinsulinism
  27. Adrenomegaly
    Enlargement of adrenal glands
  28. Adrenalectomy
    Excision of (one or both) adrenal glands
  29. Hypercalcemia
    Excessive calcium in the blood
  30. Endocrinology
    Study of endocrine glands (and their functions)
  31. Glucogenesis
    Forming or producing glucose
  32. Hypoglycemia
    Abnormally low level of glucose in the blood
  33. Glycosuria
    Abnormal amount of glucose, in the urine
  34. Homeostasis
    State of equilibrium in the internal environment of the body
  35. Kalemia
    Potassium in the blood
  36. Pancreatotomy
    Incision of the pancreas
  37. Parathyroidectomy
    Excision of (one or more of the) parathyroid glands
  38. Thymoma
    Tumor of the thymus gland
  39. Thyromegaly
    Enlargement of the thyroid gland
  40. Hyperthyroidism
    Condition of excessive thyroid gland (function)
  41. Toxicologist
    Specialist in the study of poisons
  42. Endocrine
    Secrete internally or within
  43. Polydipsia
    Excessive thirst
  44. Androgen
    Any steroid hormone that increases masculinization
  45. Thyrotoxic
    Pertaining to toxic activity of the thyroid gland
  46. Glycosuria
    Glucose in the urine
  47. Euthyroid
    Resembling a normal thyroid gland
  48. Exocrine
    Secrete outwardly
  49. Hyperglycemia
    Excessive glucose in the blood
  50. Hypoinsulinism
    Condition of deficiency of insulin
  51. Polyuria
    Excessive urination
  52. Acromegaly
    Chronic metabolic disorder characterized by a gradual, marke enlargement and thickening of the bones of the face and jaw
  53. Diuresis
    Increased formation and secretion of urine
  54. Glucagon
    Hormone secreted by the pancreatic alpha cells
  55. Glucose
    Simple sugar that is the end product of carbohydrate digestion
  56. Glycosuria
    Presence of glucose in the urine or abnormal amount of sugar in the urine
  57. Graves disease
    Multisystem autoimmune disorder characterized by pronounced hyperthyroidism usually associated with enlarged thyroid gland and exophthalmos (abnormal protrusion of the eyeball)
  58. Hirsutism
    Excessive distribution of body hair, especially in women
  59. Hypercalcemia
    Excessive amount of calcium in the blood
  60. Hyperkalemia
    Excessive amount of potassium in the blood
  61. Hypervolemia
    Abnormal increase in the volume of circulating fluid (plasma) in the body
  62. Hyponatremia
    Abnormal condition of low sodium in the blood
  63. Insulinoma
    Tumor of the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas
  64. Obesity
    Excessive accumulation of fat that exceeds the body's skeletal and physical standards, usually an increase of 20 percent or more above ideal body weight
  65. Morbid obesity
    Body mass index (BMI) of 40 or greater, which is generally 100 or more pounds over ideal body weight
  66. Panhypopituitarism
    Total pituitary impairment that brings about a progressive and general loss of hormonal activity
  67. Pheochromocytoma
    Small chromaffin cell tumor, usually located in the adrenal medulla
  68. Thyroid storm
    Crisis of uncontrolled hyperthyroidism caused by the release into the bloodstream of increased amount of thyroid hormone; also called thyroid crisis or thyrotoxic crisis
  69. Virile
    Masculine or having characteristics of a man
  70. Virilism
    Masculinization in a woman or development of male secondary sex characteristics in the woman
  71. Exophthalmometry
    Test that measures the degree of forward displacement of the eyeball (exophthalmos) as seen in Graves disease
  72. Fasting blood glucose
    Test that measures blood glucose levels after 12-hour fast
  73. Glucose tolerance test (GTT)
    Test that measures the body's ability to metabolize carbohydrates by administering a standard dose of glucose and measuring glucose levels in the blood and urine at regular intervals
  74. Insulin tolerance test
    Test that determines insulin levels in serum (blood) by administering insulin and measuring blood glucose levesl in blood at regular intervals
  75. Protein-bound iodine (PBI)
    Test that measures the concentration of thyroxine in a blood sample
  76. Thyroid function test (TFT)
    Test that detects an increase or decrease in thyroid function
  77. Total calcium
    Test that measures calcium to detect bone and parathyroid disorders
  78. Computed tomography (CT)
    Imaging technique that rotates an x-ray emitter around the area to be scanned and measures the intensity of transmitted rays from different angles
  79. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
    Noninvasive imaging technique that uses radio waves and a strong magnetic field rather than an x-ray beam to produce multiplanar cross-sectional images
  80. Radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU)
    Administration of radioactive iodine (RAI) orally or intravenously (IV) as a tracer to test how quickly the thyroid gland takes up (uptake) iodine from the blood
  81. Thyroid scan
    After injection of a radioactive substance, a scanner detects radioactivity and visualizes the thyroid gland
  82. Microneurosurgery of the pituitary gland
    Microdissection of a tumor using a binocular surgical microscope for magnification
  83. Parathyroidectomy
    Excision of one or more of the parathyroid glands, usually to control hyperparathyroidism
  84. Pinealectomy
    Removal of the pineal body
  85. Thymectomy
    Excision of the thymus gland
  86. Thyroidectomy
    Excision of the thyroid gland
  87. Partial thyroidectomy
    Method of choice for removing a fibrous, nodular thyroid
  88. Subtotal thyroidectomy
    Removal of most of the thyroid to relive hyperthyroidism
  89. Antidiuretics
    • Reduce or control excretion of urine
    • * Vasopressin
  90. Antithyroids
    • Treat hyperthyroidism by impeding the formation of T3 and T4 hormone
    • * Methimazole
    • * Strong iodine solution

    Administered in preparation for a thyroidectomy and in thyrotoxic crisis
  91. Corticosteroids
    • Replace hormones lost in adrenal insufficiency (Addison's disease)
    • * Cortisone
    • * Hydrocortisone

    Also widely used to suppress inflammation, control allergic reactions, reduce rejection in transplantation, and treat some cancer.
  92. Growth hormone replacements
    • Increase skeletal growth in children and growth hormone deficiencies in adults
    • * Somatropin (recombinant)

    Increase spinal bone density and help manage growth failure in children.
  93. Insulins
    • Lower blood glucose by promoting its entrance into body cells and converting glucose to glycogen (a starch-storage form of glucose.)
    • * Regular insulin
    • * NPH insulin

    Links with an insulin receptor on the cell membrane, and transports glucose inside the cell where it is metabolized. Type 1 diabetes must always be treated with insulin. Insulin can also be administered through an implanted pump which infuses the drug coninuously. Type 2 diabets that cannot be controlled with oral antidiabetics may require insulin to maintain a normal level of glucose in the blood.
  94. Oral antidiabetics
    • Treat type 2 diabetes mellitus by stimulating the pancreas to produce more insulin and decrease peripheral resistance to insulin.
    • * Glipzide
    • * Glyburide

    Not used to treat type 1 diabetes mellitus
  95. Thyroid supplements
    • Replace or supplement thyroid hormones
    • * Levothyroxine
    • * Liothyronine

    Contains T3, T4, or a combination of both. Also used to treat some types of thyroid cancer.
  96. ACTH
    Adrenocorticotropic hormone
  97. ADH
    Antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin)
  98. BMI
    Body mas index
  99. BMR
    Basal metabolic rate
  100. DI
    Diabetes insipidus; diagnostic imaging
  101. DKA
    Diabetic ketoacidosis
  102. DM
    Diabetes mellitus
  103. FSH
    Follicle-stimulating hormone
  104. GH
    Growth horomone
  105. HRT
    Hormone replacement therapy
  106. K
    Potassium (electrolyte)
  107. LH
    Lutenizing hormone
  108. mg/dl, mg/dL
    Milligrams per deciliter
  109. MSH
    Melanocyte-stimulating hormone
  110. NPH
    Neutral protamine Hagedorn (insulin)
  111. PBI
    Protein-bound iodine
  112. PRL
  113. PGH
    Pituitary growth hormone
  114. PTH
    Parathyroid hormone; also called parathormone
  115. RAI
    Radioactive iodine
  116. RAIU
    Radioactive iodine uptake
  117. T3
    Triiodothyronine (thyroid hormone)
  118. T4
    Thyroxine (thyroid hormone)
  119. TFT
    Thyroid function test
  120. TSH
    Thyroid-stimulating hormone