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menixon
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110477
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so403
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2011-10-20 00:57:53
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gerontology
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  1. gerontology
    the field of study that focuses on understanding the bilogical, psychological, social, and political factors that influence people's lives
  2. geriatrics
    clinical study and treatment of older people and the diseases that affect them
  3. four processes of aging
    • chronological aging
    • biological aging
    • psychological aging
    • social aging
  4. aging
    changes that occur to an organism during its life span, from development to maturation to senescence
  5. intragenerational diversity
    • young old (ages 65 -74)
    • old old (ages 75 - 84)
    • oldest old (ages 85 and older)
  6. active aging
    • the process of optimizing opportunities for health, participation, and security in order to enhance quality of life as people age
    • emphasis on autonomy/choice with aging
    • model of viewing aging as a positive experience of continued growth and participation in family, community, and social activites, regardless of physical and cognitive decline
  7. active aging focuses on improving life for all elderly including:
    • those who are frail
    • disabled
    • or require assistance with daily living
  8. active aging supports:
    the importance of physical, psychological, and social well being in later years
  9. determinants of active aging:
    • health and social services
    • behavioral determinants
    • personal determinants
    • physical environment
    • social determinants
    • economic determinants
    • ^outside of these^
    • gender
    • culture
  10. behavioral determinants
    the individuals behavior throughout life
  11. personal determinants
    personality, style, and how we cope and adapt to change as we age
  12. physical and social environment
    family, friends, informal and formal support networks
  13. economic determinants
    economic / financial security
  14. health and social services
    access to and use of health and social services across the life cycle
  15. person-environment perspective on social gerontology
    a model that suggests that the environment is not a static backdrop, but changes continually as the elder takes from it what he/she needs, controls what can be modified, and adjusts to conditions that cannot be changed
  16. growth of older population: changes in life expectancy
    • females born in 2005 are expected to reach 80+ years
    • males born in 2005 are expected to reach 75.2 years
    • even in 2050, male life exp. will be less than 80 years, females will achieve 84.3 years
  17. the oldest old (ages 85 and older):
    • grows more rapidly than any other age group in the US
    • in 2005, 36.8 million were over age 65
    • centenarians (age 100+)
  18. cohorts
    aggregate of individuals who experienced the same events within the same time interval
  19. chronological aging
    aging based on a persons years lived from birth
  20. biological aging
    • refers to physical changes that reduce the efficiency of organ systems, such as the lungs, heart, and circulatory system
    • (functional aging)
  21. phychological aging
    includes the changes that occur in sensory and perceptual processes, cognitive abilities (memory, learning, intelligence), adaptive capacity, and personality
  22. social aging
    refers to an individuals changing roles and relationships with family, friends, and other imformal supports, both paid and unpaid productive roles, and within organizations such as religious and political groups
  23. social gerontology
    the area of gerontology that is concerned with the impact of social and sociocultural conditions on the process of aging and its social consequences
  24. senescence
    • after age 30, additional changes occur that reflect normal declines in all organ systems
    • happens gradually throughout the body, reducing the viability of different bodily systems and increasing their vunerability to disease.
    • final stage in development of an organism
  25. resilience
    an individuals ability to thrive despite adversity in their lives
  26. life course
    this approach captures how earlier life experiences and decisions affect opportunities in later life and for future generations within and across cultures and time
  27. competence model
    useful way to view the dynamic interactions between the person's physical and psychological characteristics and the social and physical environment
  28. environment
    may refer to the larger society, the community, the neighborhood, or the home
  29. environmental press
    the demands that social and physical environments make on the individual to adapt, respond, or change.
  30. individual competence
    • the theoretical upper limit of an individuals abilities to function in different areas
    • good health
    • effective problem solving
    • learning skills
    • ability to manage the basic activites of daily living
  31. maximum life span
    the maximum number of years a given species could expect to live if environmental hazards were eliminated.
  32. rectangular survival curve
    "ideal curve"
  33. who are the oldest old
    • majority are women at 71 percent
    • their educational level is lower than for those age 65 to 74
    • most women widowed compared to men (78.3 vs. 34.6 percent)
  34. population pyramid
    illustrates the changing proportions of young and old persons in the population
  35. compression of morbidity
    • experiencing only a few years of major illness in very old age
    • implies that premature death is minimized because disease and functional decline are compressed into a brief period of 3 to 5 years before death
  36. concept of active vs. dependent life expectancy
    distinguish between merely living a long life and living to a healthy old age
  37. cross sectional research
    the collection of data on people of different ages at one time
  38. longitudinal research
    the study of the same person over a period of months of years
  39. age differences
    ways that one generation differs from another
  40. age changes
    ways that people normally change over time
  41. confounding
    joint effect of two variables on an outcome of interest
  42. longitudinal designs
    • permit inferences about age changes
    • eliminate cohort effects by studying the same people over time
  43. selective survival
    • problem: affects most studies of older people
    • the birth cohort loses members so that those who remain are not necessarily representative of all members of the original group
  44. sequential research designs
    the combine the strengths of cross sectional and longitudinal research designs: cohort-sequential, time sequential, cross sequential methods
  45. cohort sequential design
    • an extension of the longitudinal design
    • two or more cohorts are followed for a period of time so that measurments are taken of different cohorts at the same ages but different points in time
  46. time sequential design
    • useful for distinguishing between age and time of measurment or historical factors
    • can be used to determine if changes obtained are due to aging or to historical factors
    • compare two or more cross sectional samples at two or more measument periods
  47. cross sequential design
    • combines cross sectional and longitudinal designs
    • becoming more widely used
  48. population aging
    • the rapid growth of the population age 60 and older
    • expected to grow by more than 50 percent btw 2009 and 2050
  49. social stratification
    conferred respect and authority to older adults who controlled these resources or skills
  50. modernization theory
    advances in technology, applied sciences, urbanization, and literacy which, in this context, are related to a decline in the status of older people
  51. health technology
    reduced infant mortality and maternal deaths and prolonged adult life, thereby increasing the number of older persons
  52. scientific technology
    creates new jobs primarily for the young, with older workers more likely to remain in traditional occupations that become obsolete
  53. urban areas
    older parents and grandparents remain on the family farm or in rural communities
  54. filial piety
    a sense of reverence and deference toward elders
  55. skipped generation households
    grandparents caring for grandchildren after the parents had relocated to urban areas for employment
  56. biculturalism
    the process of integrating two cultures into one's lifestyle
  57. functional capacity
    the performance ability of the heart, lungs, kidneys, and other organs
  58. wear and tear theory
    suggests that, like a machine, the organism simply wears out over time
  59. cellular aging theory
    suggests that aging occurs as cells slow their number of replications
  60. immunilogical theory
    makes use of findings of cellular aging theory in its observations that replicative senescence occurs with aging, defined as the declining ability of T cells in aging organisms to replicate
  61. telomeres
    • series of protective DNA structures at the end of human chromosomes
    • shorten with multiple cell divisions
    • as they reach very short lengths, the cell cycle ends
  62. telomerase
    • a gene with the catalytic component of human telomerase to various cell types.
    • experiments succesful in stabilizing the length of telomeres, normalizing cell function and replication, and not causing tumor growth
  63. oxidative stress model of aging or
    free radical theory
    the progressive and irreversible accumulation of oxidative damage to cells explains the age related loss of physiological function
  64. antioxidant
    • chemical inhibitors that can safely absorb the extra electron and prevent oxygen from combining with susceptible molecules to form free radicals and damage DNA.
    • created by cells in the body, but aging results in slower productions of antioxidants
  65. mitochondrial DNA mutation theory
    • evidence that mutated forms of mitochondrial DNA accumulate in the body with aging.
    • unclear whether this is a cause or a byproduct of age related deterioration and death
  66. prolongevity
    the idea that the length of healthy life can be extended and some diseases associated with aging eliminated.
  67. normal changes in the body (visible and invisible):
    alterations in muscle mass, fat tissue, and water, skin, hair
  68. sarcopenia
    decline in muscle mass and increase fat
  69. master atheletes
    older people who maintain a vigorous exercise program can prevent a significant loss of muscle tone
  70. photoaging (extrinsic aging)
    wrinkled, dried, and tougher texture of older people's skin
  71. melanin
    darker pigmentation of the skin
  72. age spots or liver spots
    harmless from a health standpoint but of concern for their appearance
  73. dermis
    second layer of skin
  74. subcutaneous
    deepest skin layers which tend to lose fat and water with aging
  75. hypothermia
    low body temperature sometimes resulting in brain damage or death
  76. hyperthermia
    heat stroke
  77. osteoporosis
    a disease that makes the bones less dense, more porous, and hence more prone to fractures
  78. kyphosis
    crush fractures of the spine cause the vertrbrae to collapse, to such an extent that over time, some people (esp women) appear to be stoop shouldered or hunched
  79. kinesthetic system
    adjustment in body positions become known through kinesthetic cues
  80. somesthetic
    touch
  81. vital capacity
    • the maximum amount of oxygen that can be brought into the lungs with a deep breath
    • this declines as people age
  82. lipofuscin
    an age pigment composed of fat and protein
  83. varicosities
    abnormal swelling in veins that are under high pressure
  84. atherosclerosis
    the arterial and vessel walls become increasingly lined with lipids (fats) which makes it more difficult for blood to be pumped through the vessels and arteries
  85. systolic
    level of blood pressure during the contraction phase (systole)
  86. diastolic pressure
    refers to the stage when the chambers of the heart are filling with blood
  87. orthopedic injuries
    high intensity training can lead to this
  88. renal function
    the rate at which blood is filtered through the kidneys
  89. urinary incontinence
    difficulties with bladder control
  90. atrophic gastritis
    a chronic inflammation of the stomach lining
  91. menopause
    reduced production of two important hormones in women
  92. glucose
    a type of sugar found in plants and animals, serves as a major energy source and circulates in blood
  93. neurons
    nerve cells
  94. dementia
    diminished ability to remember, make accurate judgements, etc
  95. sleep apnea
    a 5 to 10 second cessation of breathing
  96. periodic limb movement disorder
    a neuromuscluar disturbance affeting the legs during sleep
  97. arcus senilis
    a fatty yellow ring may form around the cornea
  98. glaucoma
    a disease in which there is insufficient drainage or excessive production of aqueous humor, the fluid in the front portion of the eye
  99. accomodation
    muscles that help stretch the lens also deteriorate with age, thereby compounding the problem of changing the shape of the lens
  100. age related cataract
    • clouding of the lens to the point that the lens prevents light from entering
    • the fourth leading cause of blindness in the US and the primary basis for blindness worldwide
  101. age related macular degeneration
    lose acuity in the center of their visual field
  102. otosclerosis
    a condition in which the stapes becomes fixed and cannot vibrate
  103. prebycusis
    sensorineural loss that accompanies aging
  104. tinnitus
    • a high pitched ringing
    • affects older people but can also occur early in life
  105. good health
    a state of complete physical, mental, and social well being
  106. health status
    • the presence or absence of disease
    • the degree of disability in an individual's level of functioning.
  107. disability
    impairments in the ability to complete multiple daily tasks
  108. frailty
    • unintended weight loss
    • slow walking speed
    • low physical activity levels
    • weak grip strength
    • chronic exhaustion
    • (a person must exhibit at least three of these to have this condition)
  109. comorbidity
    the coexistence or two or more chronic systemic or psychiatric condition
  110. quality of life
    combination of an individuals functional health, feelings of competence, autonomy in performing ADL's and satisfaction with one's social circumstances
  111. acute
    temporary
  112. chronic conditions
    • long term (more than 3 months)
    • often permanent, leaving a residual disability that may require long term management or care rather than a cure
  113. immunity
    reduced resistance to environmental carcinogens, viruses, and bacteria
  114. atherosclerosis
    fatty deposits begin early in life and accumulate to reduce the size of the passageway of the large arteries
  115. ten developmental tasks of later adulthood:
    • during this stage life developemental tasks are mostly psychological
    • retirement and lower income
    • living with your spouse in retirement
    • associating with your age group or with older people
    • maintaining interest in friends and family ties
    • continuing social and civic responsibilities
    • coping with illness and/or loss of a spouse or friend
    • finding satisfactory living arrangements at different stages of later adulthood
    • adjusting to changing physical strength and health and overcoming bodily preoccupation
    • accepting the prospect of death
  116. sociological theories
    • focus on the changing roles and
    • relationships that accompany aging. These theories discuss how these changing
    • roles, relationships, and status impact the older individual’s ability to
    • adapt
  117. disengagement theory
    • One of the earliest and most
    • controversial theories of aging, views aging as a process of gradual withdrawal
    • between society and the older adult. This mutual withdrawal or disengagement is
    • a natural, acceptable, and universal process that accompanies growing old
    • benefits both the older population and the social system
  118. activity theory
    • Asserts that
    • remaining active and engaged with society is pivotal to satisfaction in old
    • age. This mentality is diametrically opposed to the disengagement theory.
    • Successful aging equals active aging. Activity can be physical or intellectual
    • in nature.
  119. To
    • maintain a positive self-image, the older person must develop new interests,
    • hobbies, roles, and relationships to replace those that are diminished or lost
    • in late life.
  120. continuity theory
    • Personality,
    • values, morals, preferences, role activity, and basic patterns of behavior are
    • consistent throughout the life span, regardless of the life changes one
    • encounters

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